THE ORDER OF APPEARANCE OF FOSSIL GROUPS AND THEIR TAXONOMIC GROUPING

     All living organisms, including humans, can be classified in a hierarchy of taxonomic groups.  Our kingdom Animalia, for example, is a larger group and contains more diverse organisms than does our Class Mammalia, which in turn is a larger group and contains more diverse organisms than does our Order Primates.  Opponents of evolution claim that all groups of living things came to be virtually simultaneously.  In the evolutionary model, the first known members of our kingdom our expected to occur before the first known members of our class which are expected to occur before the first known members of our order.  In the following charts, the number corresponding to each taxonomic category is given in the geologic period in which the fist known fossil members have been found.  Which of the two models (the evolutionary model and the non-evolutionary model) is supported by the fossil evidence?


CLASSIFICATION OF HUMANS AND THE FOSSIL HISTORY

1) A LIVING ORGANISM  

    2) DOMAIN: EUKARYOTA

          3)  KINGDOM: ANIMALIA

4) BRANCH: EUMETAZOA

                     5) BILATERA

                                6) COELOMATE

                                    7)  DEUTEROSTOMES

                                                8) PHYLUM: CHORDATA

                                                    9)   SUBPHYLUM: VERTEBRATA

                                          10)    SUPERCLASS:  GNATHOSTOMATA

                                                                11)    OSTEICHTHYES

                                                                       12) SUBCLASS: SARCOPTERYGII

                                                                           13) TETRAPODA

                                                                                14) AMPHIBIA

                                                                                     15) COTYLOSAURIA

                                                                                          16) AMNIOTA           

                                                                                                17) SUBCLASS: SYNAPSIDA

                                                                                                      18) THERAPSIDA

                                                                                                           19) CYNODONTIA                                                  

                                                                                                              20) CLASS: MAMMALIA

                                                                                                                    21)  SUBCLASS: THERIA

                                                                                                                         22) INFRACLASS:EUTHERIA

                                                                                                                              23) ORDER: PRIMATES

                                                                                                                                      24) SUBORDER:  HAPLORHINI

                                                                                                                                          25) SEMISUBORDER:  ANTHROPOIDEA

                                                                                                                                                26) INFRAORDER: CATARRHINI

                                                                                                                                                     27) SUPERFAMILY: HOMINOIDEA

                                                                                                                                                         28) FAMILY: HOMINIDAE

                                                                                                                                                                29) SUBFAMILY HOMININAE

                                                                                                                                                                     30) TRIBE: HOMININI

                                                                                                                                                                         31) SUBTRIBE: HOMININA

                                                                                                                                                                                32) SUPERGENUS:

                                                                                                                                                                                     33) GENUS: Homo

                                                                                                                                                                                         34) SPECIES: sapiens

                                                                                                                                                                                            35) SUBSPECIES: sapiens

ERA

PERIOD

EPOCH

WHEN BEGAN (millions of years ago)

First Fossils of a Group

Cenozoic

Quaternary

Recent

< 1

34,35

Pleistocene

2

33

Tertiary

Pliocene

5

31,32

Miocene

23

28, 29, 30

Oligocene

34

26, 27

Eocene

55

25

Paleocene

65

24

Mesozoic

Cretaceous

145

22, 23

Jurassic

202

21

Triassic

250

20

Paleozoic

Permian

 

290

18, 19

Carboniferous

Pennsylvanian

323

17

 

Mississippian

354

15, 16

Devonian

417

13, 14

Siluran

443

10, 11, 12

Ordovician

495

 

Cambrian

545

7,8,9

Precambrian

Proterozoic Eon

2,000

3,4,5,6

Archeozoic  Eon

4,500

1,2

CLASSIFICATION OF LAMPREYS AND THE FOSSIL HISTORY

1) A LIVING ORGANISM  

    2) DOMAIN: EUKARYOTA

          3)  KINGDOM: ANIMALIA

4) BRANCH: EUMETAZOA

                     5) BILATERA

                                6) COELOMATE

                                    7)  DEUTEROSTOMES

                                                8) PHYLUM: CHORDATA

                                                    9)   SUBPHYLUM: VERTEBRATA

                                          10)    SUPERCLASS:  CEPHALASPIDOMORPHA

                                                                11)   ORDER: ANAPSIDA

                                                                       12) PETROMYZONTOIDEA

                                                                           13) lampreys

                                                                               

ERA

PERIOD

EPOCH

WHEN BEGAN (millions of years ago)

First Fossils of a Group

Cenozoic

Quaternary

Recent

< 1

 

Pleistocene

2

 

Tertiary

Pliocene

5

 

Miocene

23

 

Oligocene

34

 

Eocene

55

 

Paleocene

65

 

Mesozoic

Cretaceous

145

 

Jurassic

202

 

Triassic

250

 

Paleozoic

Permian

 

290

 

Carboniferous

Pennsylvanian

323

 

 

Mississippian

354

13

Devonian

417

 

Siluran

443

10,11

Ordovician

495

 

Cambrian

545

7,8,9

Precambrian

Proterozoic Eon

2,000

3,4,5,6

Archeozoic  Eon

4,500

1,2

 

 


CLASSIFICATION OF RAYS AND THE FOSSIL HISTORY

1) A LIVING ORGANISM  

    2) DOMAIN: EUKARYOTA

          3)  KINGDOM: ANIMALIA

4) BRANCH: EUMETAZOA

                     5) BILATERA

                                6) COELOMATE

                                    7)  DEUTEROSTOMES

                                                8) PHYLUM: CHORDATA

                                                    9)   SUBPHYLUM: VERTEBRATA

                                          10)    SUPERCLASS:  GNATHOSTOMATA

                                                                11)   CHONDRICTHYES

                                                                       12) SUBCLASS: ELASMOBRANCHII

                                                                           13) CLADOSELACHIDA

                                                                                14) CTENACANTHOIDEA

                                                                                     15) CTENACANTHIDA

                                                                                          16) NEOSELACHII 

                                                                                                17)  SQUALOMORPHA

                                                                                                      18) BATOIDEA

                                                                                                           19) RHINOBATOIDEA                                                            

                                                                                                              20) MYLIOBATOIDEA

                                                                                                                               

ERA

PERIOD

EPOCH

WHEN BEGAN (millions of years ago)

First Fossils of a Group

Cenozoic

Quaternary

Recent

< 1

 

Pleistocene

2

 

Tertiary

Pliocene

5

 

Miocene

23

 

Oligocene

34

 

Eocene

55

 

Paleocene

65

20

Mesozoic

Cretaceous

145

 

Jurassic

202

17, 18, 19

Triassic

250

16

Paleozoic

Permian

 

290

 

Carboniferous

Pennsylvanian

323

 

 

Mississippian

354

15

Devonian

417

13,14

Siluran

443

10, 11, 12

Ordovician

495

 

Cambrian

545

7,8,9

Precambrian

Proterozoic Eon

2,000

3,4,5,6

Archeozoic  Eon

4,500

1,2

 

 

 


CLASSIFICATION OF COMMON PERCIFORM FISH AND THE FOSSIL HISTORY

1) A LIVING ORGANISM  

    2) DOMAIN: EUKARYOTA

          3)  KINGDOM: ANIMALIA

4) BRANCH: EUMETAZOA

                     5) BILATERA

                                6) COELOMATE

                                    7)  DEUTEROSTOMES

                                                8) PHYLUM: CHORDATA

                                                    9)   SUBPHYLUM: VERTEBRATA

                                          10)    SUPERCLASS:  GNATHOSTOMATA

                                                                11)   CLASS: OSTEICHTHYES

                                                                       12) SUBCLASS: ACTINOPTERYGII

                                                                           13) CHONDROSTEANS

                                                                                14) PALAEONISCIFORMES

                                                                                     15) NEOPTERYGIANS

                                                                                          16) TELEOSTS

                                                                                                17)  LEPTOLEPIFORMES

                                                                                                      18) ELOPOCEPHALA

                                                                                                           19) CLUPEOCEPHALA                                                           

                                                                                                              20) EUTELEOSTEI

                                                                                                                   21) NEOTELEOSTEI

                                                                                                                         22) ACANTHOPTERYGII

                                                                                                                             23) PERCOMORPHA

24)    ORDER: PERCIFORMES

            25) SUBORDER PERCOIDEI

            26) GENERA OF TUNA, SWARDFISH, BARACUDA & PERCH KNOWN FROM EARLY  TERTIARY

                                                                                                                               

ERA

PERIOD

EPOCH

WHEN BEGAN (millions of years ago)

First Fossils of a Group

Cenozoic

Quaternary

Recent

< 1

 

Pleistocene

2

 

Tertiary

Pliocene

5

 

Miocene

23

 

Oligocene

34

 

Eocene

55

26

Paleocene

65

22, 23, 24, 25

Mesozoic

Cretaceous

145

19, 20, 21

Jurassic

202

17, 18

Triassic

250

16

Paleozoic

Permian

 

290

15

Carboniferous

Pennsylvanian

323

 

 

Mississippian

354

 

Devonian

417

13, 14

Siluran

443

10, 11, 12

Ordovician

495

 

Cambrian

545

7,8,9

Precambrian

Proterozoic Eon

2,000

3,4,5,6

Archeozoic  Eon

4,500

1,2

 

 

 

 

CLASSIFICATION OF COELOCANTHS AND THE FOSSIL HISTORY

1) A LIVING ORGANISM  

    2) DOMAIN: EUKARYOTA

          3)  KINGDOM: ANIMALIA

4) BRANCH: EUMETAZOA

                     5) BILATERA

                                6) COELOMATE

                                    7)  DEUTEROSTOMES

                                                8) PHYLUM: CHORDATA

                                                    9)   SUBPHYLUM: VERTEBRATA

                                          10)    SUPERCLASS:  GNATHOSTOMATA

                                                                11)   CLASS: OSTEICHTHYES

                                                                       12) SUBCLASS:  SARCOPTERYGII-D

                                                                           13) RHIPIDISTIANS--D

                                                                                14) COELOCANTHIFORMES--D

                                                                                     15) GENUS: LATIMERIA (T?)

                                                                               

                                                                                                                               

ERA

PERIOD

EPOCH

WHEN BEGAN (millions of years ago)

First Fossils of a Group

Cenozoic

Quaternary

Recent

< 1

 

Pleistocene

2

 

Tertiary

Pliocene

5

 

Miocene

23

 

Oligocene

34

 

Eocene

55

 

Paleocene

65

 

Mesozoic

Cretaceous

145

 

Jurassic

202

 

Triassic

250

15

Paleozoic

Permian

 

290

 

Carboniferous

Pennsylvanian

323

 

 

Mississippian

354

 

Devonian

417

12, 13, 14

Siluran

443

10, 11

Ordovician

495

 

Cambrian

545

7,8,9

Precambrian

Proterozoic Eon

2,000

3,4,5,6

Archeozoic  Eon

4,500

1,2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


CLASSIFICATION OF FROGS AND THE FOSSIL HISTORY

1) A LIVING ORGANISM  

    2) DOMAIN: EUKARYOTA

          3)  KINGDOM: ANIMALIA

4) BRANCH: EUMETAZOA

                     5) BILATERA

                                6) COELOMATE

                                    7)  DEUTEROSTOMES

                                                8) PHYLUM: CHORDATA

                                                    9)   SUBPHYLUM: VERTEBRATA

                                          10)    SUPERCLASS:  GNATHOSTOMATA

                                                                11)    OSTEICHTHYES

                                                                       12) SUBCLASS: SARCOPTERYGII

                                                                           13) TETRAPODA

                                                                                14) CLASS: AMPHIBIA

                                                                                     15) SUBCLASS: LEPOSPONDYLI-MisTemno?

                                                                                          16) ORDER: ANURA

                                                                                                17) FAMILY: RANIDAE

                                                                                                      18) GENUS: Rana

                                                                                                           19) MODERN SPECIES                                            

                                                                                                             

ERA

PERIOD

EPOCH

WHEN BEGAN (millions of years ago)

First Fossils of a Group

Cenozoic

Quaternary

Recent

< 1

 

Pleistocene

2

 

Tertiary

Pliocene

5

 

Miocene

23

19

Oligocene

34

 

Eocene

55

17, 18

Paleocene

65

 

Mesozoic

Cretaceous

145

 

Jurassic

202

16

Triassic

250

 

Paleozoic

Permian

 

290

 

Carboniferous

Pennsylvanian

323

 

 

Mississippian

354

15

Devonian

417

13, 14

Siluran

443

10, 11, 12

Ordovician

495

 

Cambrian

545

7,8,9

Precambrian

Proterozoic Eon

2,000

3,4,5,6

Archeozoic  Eon

4,500

1,2

 


CLASSIFICATION OF TORTOISES AND THE FOSSIL HISTORY

1) A LIVING ORGANISM  

    2) DOMAIN: EUKARYOTA

          3)  KINGDOM: ANIMALIA

4) BRANCH: EUMETAZOA

                     5) BILATERA

                                6) COELOMATE

                                    7)  DEUTEROSTOMES

                                                8) PHYLUM: CHORDATA

                                                    9)   SUBPHYLUM: VERTEBRATA

                                          10)    SUPERCLASS:  GNATHOSTOMATA

                                                                11)    OSTEICHTHYES

                                                                       12) SUBCLASS: SARCOPTERYGII

                                                                           13) TETRAPODA

                                                                                14) AMPHIBIA

                                                                                     15) COTYLOSAURIA

                                                                                          16) AMNIOTA           

                                                                                                17) SUBCLASS: PARAREPTILIA

                                                                                                      18) ORDER: TESTUDINATA

                                                                                                           19) SUBORDER: CRYPTODIRA            

                                                                                                              20) SUPERFAMILY:  TESTUDINOIDEA                                           

                                                                                                                         21) FAMILY: TESTUDINIDAE (TORTOISES)

                                                                                                                             

ERA

PERIOD

EPOCH

WHEN BEGAN (millions of years ago)

First Fossils of a Group

Cenozoic

Quaternary

Recent

< 1

 

Pleistocene

2

 

Tertiary

Pliocene

5

 

Miocene

23

 

Oligocene

34

 

Eocene

55

21

Paleocene

65

20

Mesozoic

Cretaceous

145

 

Jurassic

202

19

Triassic

250

18

Paleozoic

Permian

 

290

17

Carboniferous

Pennsylvanian

323

16

 

Mississippian

354

15

Devonian

417

13, 14

Siluran

443

10, 11, 12

Ordovician

495

 

Cambrian

545

7,8,9

Precambrian

Proterozoic Eon

2,000

3,4,5,6

Archeozoic  Eon

4,500

1,2

 

 

 

 


CLASSIFICATION OF CHAMELEONS AND THE FOSSIL HISTORY

1) A LIVING ORGANISM  

    2) DOMAIN: EUKARYOTA

          3)  KINGDOM: ANIMALIA

4) BRANCH: EUMETAZOA

                     5) BILATERA

                                6) COELOMATE

                                    7)  DEUTEROSTOMES

                                                8) PHYLUM: CHORDATA

                                                    9)   SUBPHYLUM: VERTEBRATA

                                          10)    SUPERCLASS:  GNATHOSTOMATA

                                                                11)    OSTEICHTHYES

                                                                       12) SUBCLASS: SARCOPTERYGII

                                                                           13) TETRAPODA

                                                                                14) AMPHIBIA

                                                                                     15) COTYLOSAURIA

                                                                                          16) AMNIOTA           

                                                                                                17) SUBCLASS: EUREPTILIA

                                                                                                      18) INFRACLASS: LEPIDOSAUROMORPHA

                                                                                                           19) SUPERORDER: LEPIDOSAURIA

                                                                                                              20)  ORDER SQUAMATA                                   

                                                                                                                         21) EOLACERTILIA

                                                                                                                                22) LACERTILIA

                                                                                                                                     23) IGUANIA

                                                                                                                                                24) CHAMAEL FAMILY?

                                                                                                                                                     25) GENUS: CHAMAELEO

                                                                                                                              

ERA

PERIOD

EPOCH

WHEN BEGAN (millions of years ago)

First Fossils of a Group

Cenozoic

Quaternary

Recent

< 1

 

Pleistocene

2

 

Tertiary

Pliocene

5

 

Miocene

23

25

Oligocene

34

 

Eocene

55

 

Paleocene

65

 

Mesozoic

Cretaceous

145

23, 24

Jurassic

202

22

Triassic

250

 

Paleozoic

Permian

 

290

18, 19, 20, 21

Carboniferous

Pennsylvanian

323

17

 

Mississippian

354

15

Devonian

417

13, 14

Siluran

443

10, 11, 12

Ordovician

495

 

Cambrian

545

7,8,9

Precambrian

Proterozoic Eon

2,000

3,4,5,6

Archeozoic  Eon

4,500

1,2

 


 CLASSIFICATION OF RATTLESNAKES AND THE FOSSIL HISTORY

1) A LIVING ORGANISM  

    2) DOMAIN: EUKARYOTA

          3)  KINGDOM: ANIMALIA

4) BRANCH: EUMETAZOA

                     5) BILATERA

                                6) COELOMATE

                                    7)  DEUTEROSTOMES

                                                8) PHYLUM: CHORDATA

                                                    9)   SUBPHYLUM: VERTEBRATA

                                          10)    SUPERCLASS:  GNATHOSTOMATA

                                                                11)    OSTEICHTHYES

                                                                       12) SUBCLASS: SARCOPTERYGII

                                                                           13) TETRAPODA

                                                                                14) AMPHIBIA

                                                                                     15) COTYLOSAURIA

                                                                                          16) AMNIOTA           

                                                                                                17) SUBCLASS: EUREPTILIA

                                                                                                      18) INFRACLASS: LEPIDOSAUROMORPHA

                                                                                                           19) SUPERORDER: LEPIDOSAURIA

                                                                                                              20)  ORDER SQUAMATA                                   

                                                                                                                         21) EOLACERTILIA

                                                                                                                                22) LACERTILIA

                                                                                                                                     23) ANGUIMORPHA

                                                                                                                                                24) VARANIDAE

                                                                                                                                                     25) OPHIAC

                                                                                                                                                                26)  CAENOPHIDIA

                                                                                                                                                                      27)  VIPERIDAE

 

                                                                                                                             

ERA

PERIOD

EPOCH

WHEN BEGAN (millions of years ago)

First Fossils of a Group

Cenozoic

Quaternary

Recent

< 1

 

Pleistocene

2

 

Tertiary

Pliocene

5

 

Miocene

23

27

Oligocene

34

 

Eocene

55

26

Paleocene

65

 

Mesozoic

Cretaceous

145

24, 25

Jurassic

202

22, 23

Triassic

250

 

Paleozoic

Permian

 

290

18, 19, 20, 21

Carboniferous

Pennsylvanian

323

17

 

Mississippian

354

15

Devonian

417

13, 14

Siluran

443

10, 11, 12

Ordovician

495

 

Cambrian

545

7,8,9

Precambrian

Proterozoic Eon

2,000

3,4,5,6

Archeozoic  Eon

4,500

1,2

 


CLASSIFICATION OF ALLIGATORS AND THE FOSSIL HISTORY

1) A LIVING ORGANISM  

    2) DOMAIN: EUKARYOTA

          3)  KINGDOM: ANIMALIA

4) BRANCH: EUMETAZOA

                     5) BILATERA

                                6) COELOMATE

                                    7)  DEUTEROSTOMES

                                                8) PHYLUM: CHORDATA

                                                    9)   SUBPHYLUM: VERTEBRATA

                                          10)    SUPERCLASS:  GNATHOSTOMATA

                                                                11)    OSTEICHTHYES

                                                                       12) SUBCLASS: SARCOPTERYGII

                                                                           13) TETRAPODA

                                                                                14) AMPHIBIA

                                                                                     15) COTYLOSAURIA

                                                                                          16) AMNIOTA           

                                                                                                17) SUBCLASS: EUREPTILIA

                                                                                                      18) INFRACLASS: ARCHOSAUROMORPHA

                                                                                                           19) SUPERORDER: ARCHOSAURIA

                                                                                                              20)  ORDER CROCODYLA                                  

                                                                                                                         21) PROTOSUCHIA

                                                                                                                                22) MESOSUCHIA

                                                                                                                                     23) EUSUCHIA

                                                                                                                                                24) FAMILY ALLIGATORIDAE

                                                                                                                                                     25) GENUS: Alligator

                                                                                                                             

ERA

PERIOD

EPOCH

WHEN BEGAN (millions of years ago)

First Fossils of a Group

Cenozoic

Quaternary

Recent

< 1

 

Pleistocene

2

 

Tertiary

Pliocene

5

 

Miocene

23

25

Oligocene

34

 

Eocene

55

 

Paleocene

65

24

Mesozoic

Cretaceous

145

23

Jurassic

202

22

Triassic

250

 

Paleozoic

Permian

 

290

18, 19, 20, 21

Carboniferous

Pennsylvanian

323

17

 

Mississippian

354

15

Devonian

417

13, 14

Siluran

443

10, 11, 12

Ordovician

495

 

Cambrian

545

7,8,9

Precambrian

Proterozoic Eon

2,000

3,4,5,6

Archeozoic  Eon

4,500

1,2

 


CLASSIFICATION OF BIRDS AND THE FOSSIL HISTORY

1) A LIVING ORGANISM  

    2) DOMAIN: EUKARYOTA

          3)  KINGDOM: ANIMALIA

4) BRANCH: EUMETAZOA

                     5) BILATERA

                                6) COELOMATE

                                    7)  DEUTEROSTOMES

                                                8) PHYLUM: CHORDATA

                                                    9)   SUBPHYLUM: VERTEBRATA

                                          10)    SUPERCLASS:  GNATHOSTOMATA

                                                                11)    OSTEICHTHYES

                                                                       12) SUBCLASS: SARCOPTERYGII

                                                                           13) TETRAPODA

                                                                                14) AMPHIBIA

                                                                                     15) COTYLOSAURIA

                                                                                          16) AMNIOTA           

                                                                                                17) SUBCLASS: EUREPTILIA

                                                                                                      18) INFRACLASS: ARCHOSAUROMORPHA

                                                                                                           19) SUPERORDER: ARCHOSAURIA

                                                                                                              20)  THECODONTIA                            

                                                                                                                     21) DINOSAURIA

                                                                                                                         22) THEROPODA

                                                                                                                              23) TETANURAE

                                                                                                                                   24)  MANIRAPTORA

                                                                                                                                        25) CLASS: AVES

                                                                                                                                                26) SUBCLASS: ARCHAEORNITHES                                                                                                                                                                     27) SUBCLASS NEORNITHES

                                                                                                                                                           28) SUPERORDER: NEOGNATHAE

                                                                                                                                                                29)  ORDER: PASSERIFORMES

                                                                                                                                                                      30) OSCINES

                                                                                                                             

ERA

PERIOD

EPOCH

WHEN BEGAN (millions of years ago)

First Fossils of a Group

Cenozoic

Quaternary

Recent

< 1

 

Pleistocene

2

 

Tertiary

Pliocene

5

 

Miocene

23

30

Oligocene

34

29

Eocene

55

 

Paleocene

65

28

Mesozoic

Cretaceous

145

27

Jurassic

202

23, 24, 25, 26

Triassic

250

20, 21, 22

Paleozoic

Permian

 

290

18, 19

Carboniferous

Pennsylvanian

323

17

 

Mississippian

354

15

Devonian

417

13, 14

Siluran

443

10, 11, 12

Ordovician

495

 

Cambrian

545

7,8,9

Precambrian

Proterozoic Eon

2,000

3,4,5,6

Archeozoic  Eon

4,500

1,2


CLASSIFICATION OF LORISES (PRIMITIVE PRIMATES) AND THE FOSSIL HISTORY

1) A LIVING ORGANISM  

    2) DOMAIN: EUKARYOTA

          3)  KINGDOM: ANIMALIA

4) BRANCH: EUMETAZOA

                     5) BILATERA

                                6) COELOMATE

                                    7)  DEUTEROSTOMES

                                                8) PHYLUM: CHORDATA

                                                    9)   SUBPHYLUM: VERTEBRATA

                                          10)    SUPERCLASS:  GNATHOSTOMATA

                                                                11)    OSTEICHTHYES

                                                                       12) SUBCLASS: SARCOPTERYGII

                                                                           13) TETRAPODA

                                                                                14) AMPHIBIA

                                                                                     15) COTYLOSAURIA

                                                                                          16) AMNIOTA           

                                                                                                17) SUBCLASS: SYNAPSIDA

                                                                                                      18) THERAPSIDA

                                                                                                           19) CYNODONTIA                                                  

                                                                                                              20) CLASS: MAMMALIA

                                                                                                                    21)  SUBCLASS: THERIA

                                                                                                                         22) INFRACLASS:EUTHERIA

                                                                                                                              23) ORDER: PRIMATES

                                                                                                                                      24) SUBORDER:  PLATYRRHINI--OL

                                                                                                                                          25) FAMILY: LORISIDAE--MIO

                                                                                                                                               

ERA

PERIOD

EPOCH

WHEN BEGAN (millions of years ago)

First Fossils of a Group

Cenozoic

Quaternary

Recent

< 1

34,35

Pleistocene

2

33

Tertiary

Pliocene

5

31,32

Miocene

23

28, 29, 30

Oligocene

34

26, 27

Eocene

55

25

Paleocene

65

24

Mesozoic

Cretaceous

145

22, 23

Jurassic

202

21

Triassic

250

20

Paleozoic

Permian

 

290

18, 19

Carboniferous

Pennsylvanian

323

17

 

Mississippian

354

15, 16

Devonian

417

13, 14

Siluran

443

10, 11, 12

Ordovician

495

 

Cambrian

545

7,8,9

Precambrian

Proterozoic Eon

2,000

3,4,5,6

Archeozoic  Eon

4,500

1,2

 


CLASSIFICATION OF PIGS AND THE FOSSIL HISTORY

1) A LIVING ORGANISM  

    2) DOMAIN: EUKARYOTA

          3)  KINGDOM: ANIMALIA

4) BRANCH: EUMETAZOA

                     5) BILATERA

                                6) COELOMATE

                                    7)  DEUTEROSTOMES

                                                8) PHYLUM: CHORDATA

                                                    9)   SUBPHYLUM: VERTEBRATA

                                          10)    SUPERCLASS:  GNATHOSTOMATA

                                                                11)    OSTEICHTHYES

                                                                       12) SUBCLASS: SARCOPTERYGII

                                                                           13) TETRAPODA

                                                                                14) AMPHIBIA

                                                                                     15) COTYLOSAURIA

                                                                                          16) AMNIOTA           

                                                                                                17) SUBCLASS: SYNAPSIDA

                                                                                                      18) THERAPSIDA

                                                                                                           19) CYNODONTIA                                                  

                                                                                                              20) CLASS: MAMMALIA

                                                                                                                    21)  SUBCLASS: THERIA

                                                                                                                         22) INFRACLASS:EUTHERIA

                                                                                                                              23) CONDYLARTHA--C

                                                                                                                                      24) ARTIODACTYLA--EO

                                                                                                                                          25) SUIFORMES--EO

                                                                                                                                                26) SUIDAE--OL

                                                                                                                                                    

ERA

PERIOD

EPOCH

WHEN BEGAN (millions of years ago)

First Fossils of a Group

Cenozoic

Quaternary

Recent

< 1

34,35

Pleistocene

2

33

Tertiary

Pliocene

5

31,32

Miocene

23

28, 29, 30

Oligocene

34

26, 27

Eocene

55

25

Paleocene

65

24

Mesozoic

Cretaceous

145

22, 23

Jurassic

202

21

Triassic

250

20

Paleozoic

Permian

 

290

18, 19

Carboniferous

Pennsylvanian

323

17

 

Mississippian

354

15, 16

Devonian

417

13, 14

Siluran

443

10, 11, 12

Ordovician

495

 

Cambrian

545

7,8,9

Precambrian

Proterozoic Eon

2,000

3,4,5,6

Archeozoic  Eon

4,500

1,2

 


CLASSIFICATION OF DEER AND THE FOSSIL HISTORY

1) A LIVING ORGANISM  

    2) DOMAIN: EUKARYOTA

          3)  KINGDOM: ANIMALIA

4) BRANCH: EUMETAZOA

                     5) BILATERA

                                6) COELOMATE

                                    7)  DEUTEROSTOMES

                                                8) PHYLUM: CHORDATA

                                                    9)   SUBPHYLUM: VERTEBRATA

                                          10)    SUPERCLASS:  GNATHOSTOMATA

                                                                11)    OSTEICHTHYES

                                                                       12) SUBCLASS: SARCOPTERYGII

                                                                           13) TETRAPODA

                                                                                14) AMPHIBIA

                                                                                     15) COTYLOSAURIA

                                                                                          16) AMNIOTA           

                                                                                                17) SUBCLASS: SYNAPSIDA

                                                                                                      18) THERAPSIDA

                                                                                                           19) CYNODONTIA                                                  

                                                                                                              20) CLASS: MAMMALIA

                                                                                                                    21)  SUBCLASS: THERIA

                                                                                                                         22) INFRACLASS:EUTHERIA

                                                                                                                              23) CONDYLARTHA--C

                                                                                                                                      24) ARTIODACTYLA--EO

                                                                                                                                          25) RUMINANTIA--EO

                                                                                                                                                26) PECORA--EO

                                                                                                                                                     27) FAMILY: CERVIDAE--MIO

                                                                                                                                                    

ERA

PERIOD

EPOCH

WHEN BEGAN (millions of years ago)

First Fossils of a Group

Cenozoic

Quaternary

Recent

< 1

34,35

Pleistocene

2

33

Tertiary

Pliocene

5

31,32

Miocene

23

28, 29, 30

Oligocene

34

26, 27

Eocene

55

25

Paleocene

65

24

Mesozoic

Cretaceous

145

22, 23

Jurassic

202

21

Triassic

250

20

Paleozoic

Permian

 

290

18, 19

Carboniferous

Pennsylvanian

323

17

 

Mississippian

354

15, 16

Devonian

417

13, 14

Siluran

443

10, 11, 12

Ordovician

495

 

Cambrian

545

7,8,9

Precambrian

Proterozoic Eon

2,000

3,4,5,6

Archeozoic  Eon

4,500

1,2

 


CLASSIFICATION OF ELEPHANTS AND THE FOSSIL HISTORY

1) A LIVING ORGANISM  

    2) DOMAIN: EUKARYOTA

          3)  KINGDOM: ANIMALIA

4) BRANCH: EUMETAZOA

                     5) BILATERA

                                6) COELOMATE

                                    7)  DEUTEROSTOMES

                                                8) PHYLUM: CHORDATA

                                                    9)   SUBPHYLUM: VERTEBRATA

                                          10)    SUPERCLASS:  GNATHOSTOMATA

                                                                11)    OSTEICHTHYES

                                                                       12) SUBCLASS: SARCOPTERYGII

                                                                           13) TETRAPODA

                                                                                14) AMPHIBIA

                                                                                     15) COTYLOSAURIA

                                                                                          16) AMNIOTA           

                                                                                                17) SUBCLASS: SYNAPSIDA

                                                                                                      18) THERAPSIDA

                                                                                                           19) CYNODONTIA                                                  

                                                                                                              20) CLASS: MAMMALIA

                                                                                                                    21)  SUBCLASS: THERIA

                                                                                                                         22) INFRACLASS:EUTHERIA

                                                                                                                              23) CONDYLARTHA--C

                                                                                                                                      24) ORDER PROBOSCIDEA

                                                                                                                                          25) SUBORDER GOMPHOTHERIDAE--EO

                                                                                                                                                26) FAMILY ELEPHANTIDAE: MIO

27)    SUBFAMILY ELEPHANTINAE--MIO

28) GENUS: Elephas--Plio

                                                                                                                                                    

ERA

PERIOD

EPOCH

WHEN BEGAN (millions of years ago)

First Fossils of a Group

Cenozoic

Quaternary

Recent

< 1

34,35

Pleistocene

2

33

Tertiary

Pliocene

5

31,32

Miocene

23

28, 29, 30

Oligocene

34

26, 27

Eocene

55

25

Paleocene

65

24

Mesozoic

Cretaceous

145

22, 23

Jurassic

202

21

Triassic

250

20

Paleozoic

Permian

 

290

18, 19

Carboniferous

Pennsylvanian

323

17

 

Mississippian

354

15, 16

Devonian

417

13, 14

Siluran

443

10, 11, 12

Ordovician

495

 

Cambrian

545

7,8,9

Precambrian

Proterozoic Eon

2,000

3,4,5,6

Archeozoic  Eon

4,500

1,2

 


CLASSIFICATION OF SQUIRRELS AND THE FOSSIL HISTORY

1) A LIVING ORGANISM  

    2) DOMAIN: EUKARYOTA

          3)  KINGDOM: ANIMALIA

4) BRANCH: EUMETAZOA

                     5) BILATERA

                                6) COELOMATE

                                    7)  DEUTEROSTOMES

                                                8) PHYLUM: CHORDATA

                                                    9)   SUBPHYLUM: VERTEBRATA

                                          10)    SUPERCLASS:  GNATHOSTOMATA

                                                                11)    OSTEICHTHYES

                                                                       12) SUBCLASS: SARCOPTERYGII

                                                                           13) TETRAPODA

                                                                                14) AMPHIBIA

                                                                                     15) COTYLOSAURIA

                                                                                          16) AMNIOTA           

                                                                                                17) SUBCLASS: SYNAPSIDA

                                                                                                      18) THERAPSIDA

                                                                                                           19) CYNODONTIA                                                  

                                                                                                              20) CLASS: MAMMALIA

                                                                                                                    21)  SUBCLASS: THERIA

                                                                                                                         22) INFRACLASS:EUTHERIA

                                                                                                                              23) CONDYLARTHA--C

                                                                                                                                      24) ORDER RODENTIA--PA

                                                                                                                                          25) SCURIOGNATHI--PA

                                                                                                                                                26) SUBORDER: SCURIOMORPHA--?

                                                                                                                                                      27) FAMILY SCIURIDAE--OLIG

                                                                                                                                                          28)  GENUS: Sciurus--Mio

ERA

PERIOD

EPOCH

WHEN BEGAN (millions of years ago)

First Fossils of a Group

Cenozoic

Quaternary

Recent

< 1

34,35

Pleistocene

2

33

Tertiary

Pliocene

5

31,32

Miocene

23

28, 29, 30

Oligocene

34

26, 27

Eocene

55

25

Paleocene

65

24

Mesozoic

Cretaceous

145

22, 23

Jurassic

202

21

Triassic

250

20

Paleozoic

Permian

 

290

18, 19

Carboniferous

Pennsylvanian

323

17

 

Mississippian

354

15, 16

Devonian

417

13, 14

Siluran

443

10, 11, 12

Ordovician

495

 

Cambrian

545

7,8,9

Precambrian

Proterozoic Eon

2,000

3,4,5,6

Archeozoic  Eon

4,500

1,2