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GENE FAMILIES

GENE FAMILIES

 

In recent human evolution, gene duplication has occurred producing related genes of gene families.  This seems to be the rule rather than the exception.  Genomes contain many related genes—some very closely related, some more distantly related, some more distantly related still.  Drawing trees based on sequence comparisons depicts gene families which have produced more and more member genes throughout time.

 

ABC CASSETTE TRANSPORTER Gene Family members in yeast; (after Decottignies, 1997).

ABC
A family of taste receptors (T2R) with first four lines representing related opsin and 3 vomeronasal receptors (after Adler, 2000)
TREE
Human MHC I alleles and genes after Nei 1997 (the last two branches are from mouse MHC I genes).
MHC
Various MHC I genes from a variety of vertebrate species (human, gorilla, orangutan, tamarin, cat, mouse, wallaby, chicken frog, and fish) after Nei, 1997.
MHC
Two phylogenetic trees of immunoglobulin light chain C (upper tree) and V (lower tree) sequences from a variety of vertebrates, including humans; after Greenberg, 1993.
IG
IG

 


Cadherin Gene family, after Wu, 2000.

 

CADHERIN

Vertebrate globins, after Goodman, .

GLOBIN

Vertebrate and invertebrate opsin genes (plus the related RGR genes from humans and cows); after Blackshaw, 1999.

OPSIN
Human olfactory receptors after Fuchs, .
OLFACTORY
Homeodomain Gene Family after Bharathan, 1997.
HOMEODOMAIN

Dlx genes in various vertebrates, after Stock, 1996.

DLX
Cellular Retinol Binding Protein (Werten, 2000).
CRBP

P2y purinoceptor family (Somers, 1997).

P2Y