GENETICS HOME GENETICS TABLE OF CONTENTS   OBL HOME OBL REFERENCES
GENE CLADOGRAMS: MAMMALS

7. DO PLACENTAL MAMMALS FORM A CLADE RELATED BY COMMON DESCENT?

When the sequences of genes taken from different mammal species are studied, the sequence comparisons depict a pattern.  All individuals do not have the same gene sequences nor is each one so distinct that they suggest separate origins.  The pattern is not correlated with variable aspects of the species’ environment such as temperature, rainfall, food sources, etc.  The pattern depicts a branching family tree of gene sequences which have descended from common ancestral sequences.  This pattern suggests that all placental mammals are related through descent from common ancestors.

chart

Liu, 2001; combined data from 314 molecular phylogenies from different sources

7. Examples of molecules whose study has supported that placental mammals form a clade include:

--c-myc (Atchley, 1995)

--L-myc (Atchley, 1995)

--S-myc (Atchley, 1995)

--Max (Atchley, 1995)

--Lyl (Atchley, 1997)

--As-C (Atchley, 1997)

--Id (Atchley, 1997)

--Hand (Atchley, 1997)

--USF (Atchley, 1997)

--SREBP (Atchley, 1997)

--SIM (Atchley, 1997)

--apoA-IV (Babin, 1997)

--apoA-I (Babin, 1997)

--apoE (Babin, 1997)

--Ig heavy chain constant region (Belov, 2003)

--a1 collagen (Boute, 1997)

--a2 collagen (Boute, 1997)

--a4 collagen (Boute, 1997)

--a5 collagen (Boute, 1997)

--SOX4 (Bowles, 2000)

--SOXG group (Bowles, 2000)

--SOX9 (Bowles, 2000)

--SOX8 (Bowles, 2000)

--SOX10 (Bowles, 2000)

--SRY (Bowles, 2000)

--SOXB1 (Bowles, 2000)

--SOX1(Bowles, 2000)

--SOX3 (Bowles, 2000)

--SOX14 (Bowles, 2000)

--RAG1 (Brinkman, 2004)

--RAG2 (Brinkman, 2004)

--amylase (Da Lage, 1998)

--β2 microglobulin (Dijkstra, 2003)

--DRA (Edwards, 1997)

--DRB (Edwards, 1997)

 --globins (Easteal, 1988)

--PPARA: (Escriva, 2002)

--PPARG (Escriva, 2002)

--PPATB (Escriva, 2002)

--GnRH1 (Fernald, 1999)

--GNRH2 (Fernald, 1999)

--CIQ3 (Fleishman, 2004)

--CIQ1 (Fleishman, 2004)

--KCD1 (Fleishman, 2004)

--CIK5 (Fleishman, 2004)

--CIK6 (Fleishman, 2004)

--KCG2 (Fleishman, 2004)

--CHD genes (Fridolfsson, 1998)

--CHD1 (Fridolfsson, 1988)

--keratin hybridization (Fuchs, 1981)

--yh globin (Goodman, 1984)

--b globin (Goodman, 1984)

--myoglobin (Goodman, 1974)

--EPH A1 (Gu, 2003)

--EPH A2 (Gu, 2003)

--EPH A3 (Gu, 2003)

--EPH A4 (Gu, 2003)

--EPH A5 (Gu, 2003)

--EPH A6 (Gu, 2003)

--EPH B1 (Gu, 2003)

--EPH B2 (Gu, 2003)

--EPH B3 (Gu, 2003)

--EPH B4 (Gu, 2003)

--EPH B6 (Gu, 2003)

--Frk (Gu, 2003)

--lyn (Gu, 2003)

--lck (Gu, 2003)

--hck (Gu, 2003)

--blk (Gu, 2003)

--Fyn (Gu, 2003)

--Src (Gu, 2003)

--Yes (Gu, 2003)

--VEGFR1 (Gu, 2003)

--VEGFR2 (Gu, 2003) V

--EGFR3 (Gu, 2003)

--FLT3 (Gu, 2003)

--SCF1R (Gu, 2003)

--KIT (Gu, 2003)

--PDGFRα(Gu, 2003)

--PDGFRβ (Gu, 2003)

--Ron (Gu, 2003)

--Met (Gu, 2003)

--HSP70 (Gupta, 1994)

--Hsp90β (Gupta, 1998)

--Hsp90α  (Gupta, 1998)

--LCFA transporter (Hirsch, 1998)

--PDE α (Hisatomi, 2002)

--PDEβ (Hisatomi, 2002)

--PDEα’ (Hisatomi, 2002)

--CNG1 (Hisatomi, 2002)

--CNG3 (Hisatomi, 2002)

---GRK1 (Hisatomi, 2002)

--GRK7 (Hisatomi, 2002)

--Arrestin (Hisatomi, 2002)

--GC1 (Hisatomi, 2002)

--GC2 (Hisatomi, 2002)

--S-modulin (Hisatomi, 2002)

 --MHC Id (Hughes, 1999)

--blue opsin (Hunt, 1995)

--vasotocin (Hyodo, 1994)

--oxytocin (Hyodo, 1994)

--TK2 (Jure, 2004)

--dGK (Jure, 2004)

--DCK (Jure, 2004)

--TK1 (Jure, 2004)

--SPARC (Kawasaki, 2004)

--SPARCL1 (Kawasaki, 2004)

--RXRβ (Koustrouch, 1998)

--GnRHR (Kusakabe, 2002)

--Mcl 1(Lanaye, 2004)

--bax (Lanaye, 2004)

--bak (Lanaye, 2004)

--bok (Lanaye, 2004)

--bcl-w (Lanaye, 2004)

--blc2 (Lanaye, 2004)

 --bcl-x (Lanaye, 2004)

--plasminogen (Lawn, 1997)

--β globin (Lee, 1999a)

--γ globin (Lee, 1999a)

--ε globin (Lee, 1999a)

--HMGB1 (Liu, 2004)

--HMGB2 (Liu, 2004)

--HMGB3 (Liu, 2004)

--SRY (Magararit, 1998)

--IgE (Miller, 2000a)

--IgG (Miller, 2000a)

--IgA (Miller, 2000a)

--IgM (Miller, 2000a)

--snail (Mazanares, 2001).

--Mox1: (Minguillon, 2002)

--Ser/Thr kinase domain (Muller, 2001)

--SOX2 (Nagai, 2001).

--SOX4 (Nagai, 2001)

--SOX18 (Nagai, 2001)

--SOX5 (Nagai, 2001)

--SOX13 (Nagai, 2001)

--SRY (Nagai, 2001)

--C3 (Nakao, 2003). 

--C4 (Nakao, 2003). 

--C5  (Nakao, 2003). 

--α2M (Nakao, 2003)

--VH genes (Nei, 1997) 

--MHC (Betz, 1994)

--MHC (Nei, 1997)

--DQ (Nei, 1997)

--DP (Nei, 1997)

--DR (Nei, 1997)

--PDE6A (Nordstrom, 2004)

--PDE6B (Nordstrom, 2004)

--PDE6C (Nordstrom, 2004)

--CNGA4 (Nordstrom, 2004)

--CNGA2 (Nordstrom, 2004)

--CNGB1 (Nordstrom, 2004)

--CNGA1 (Nordstrom, 2004)

--CNGA3 (Nordstrom, 2004)

--SAG (Nordstrom, 2004)

--ARRB2 (arrestin) (Nordstrom, 2004)

--ARR (arrestin) (Nordstrom, 2004)

--Pax1 (Ogasawara, 2000)

--Ig light chain κ.  (Pilstrom, 2002).

--Ig light chain λ (Pilstrom, 2002).

--dNK (Piskur, 2004)

--TK2 (Piskur, 2004)

--dGK (Piskur, 2004)

--TK1 (Piskur, 2004)

--Spi (Shintani, 2000)

--DAZ (Xu, 2001)

--globins (Zhu, 1992)

--28S rRNA (Zardoya, 1996)

--mitochondrial DNA (Higuchi, 1984)

--mitochondrial cytochrome b (Yang, 1996)

--combined data from 314 phylogenies (Liu 2001a)

--mitochondrial and nuclear genes (Springer, 1998)

--cytochrome c (Fitch, )

--12S mitochondrial rRNA (Hillis, 1991)

--16S mitochondrial rRNA (Hillis, 1991

--transducin Gt1 subunit (Hisatomi, 2002)

--transducin Gt2 subunit (Hisatomi, 2002)

--h globin (Koop, 1986)

--nuclear receptors (Kostrouch, 1998)

--MHC (Flajnik, 1991)

--MHC Class I (Sato, 2000)

--short wave opsin (Shi, 2003)

--Shh (Takatori, 2002)

--Ihh (Takatori, 2002)

--Dhh (Takatori, 2002)

--Ca/CaM-dependent protein kinase γ (Tombes, 2003)

--Ca/CaM-dependent protein kinase β (Tombes, 2003)

--Ca/CaM-dependent protein kinase δ (Tombes, 2003)

--carbonic anhydrase 1 (Tufts, 2003)

--carbonic anhydrase 2 (Tufts, 2003)

--carbonic anhydrase 3 (Tufts, 2003)

--carbonic anhydrase 7 (Tufts, 2003)

--IgM (Vernersson, 2004)

--IgA (Vernersson, 2004)

--IgG (Vernersson, 2004)

--IgE (Vernersson, 2004)

--IgM  (Wilson, 1997)

--IgA  (Wilson, 1997)

--IgD  (Wilson, 1997)

--IgG (Wilson, 1997)

--IgE  (Wilson, 1997)

--Pcdhα v13 (Yanase, 2004)

--Pcdhα v5 (Yanase, 2004)

--Pcdhα v1(Yanase, 2004)

--Pcdhα v2 (Yanase, 2004)

--Pcdhαv10(Yanase, 2004)

 --Pcdhα v11 (Yanase, 2004)

 --Pcdhα v6/8(Yanase, 2004)

 --Pcdhα v3/4/7/9(Yanase, 2004)

 --Pcdhα c1(Yanase, 2004)

 --Pcdhα c2 (Yanase, 2004)

--Sonic hedgehog (Zardoya, 1996)

--Indian hedgehog (Zardoya, 1996)

--mitochondrial DNA (Zardoya, 1996c)

-- RNase A (Cho, 2006).

--IFN γ: (Krause, 2005).

--IL28 (Krause, 2005).

--IFN –v (Krause, 2005).

--IFN beta (Krause, 2005).

--IFN Kappa (Krause, 2005).

-- 167 genes (Kumar, 2005).

--MC1 (Schioth, 2005).

--MC2 (Schioth, 2005).

--MC5 (Schioth, 2005).

--MC3 (Schioth, 2005).

--MC4 (Schioth, 2005).

-- αD globin (Cooper, 2006).

-- αA1 (Cooper, 2006).

--өglobin (Cooper, 2006).

-- ζglobin (Cooper, 2006).

--retinoblastoma (Takemura, 2005).

--Lipid binding protein (De Grassi, 2006)

--Cytochrome c (De Grassi, 2006)

 

8. DO THERIAN MAMMALS FORM A CLADE RELATED BY COMMON DESCENT?

When the sequences of genes taken from different mammal species are studied, the sequence comparisons depict a pattern.  All individuals do not have the same gene sequences nor is each one so distinct that they suggest separate origins.  The pattern is not correlated with variable aspects of the species’ environment such as temperature, rainfall, food sources, etc.  The pattern depicts a branching family tree of gene sequences which have descended from common ancestral sequences.  This pattern suggests that therian mammals are related through descent from common ancestors.

8. Examples of molecules whose study has supported that placental mammals form a clade include:

--peropsin (Blackshaw, 1999)

--encephalopsin (Blackshaw, 1999)

--RGR opsin (Blackshaw, 1999)

--RAG1 (Brinkman, 2004)

--IgM (Belov, 1999)

--Ig heavy chain constant region (Belov, 2003)

--β2 microglobulin (Dijkstra, 2003)

--DRA (Edwards, 1997)

--DRB (Edwards, 1997)

--myoglobin (Goodman, 1974)

--a globin (Goodman, 1974)

--b globin (Goodman, 1974)

--KIT (Gu, 2003)

--MHC Class I (Hughes, 1999)

--plasminogen (Lawn, 1997)

--rhodopsin (Kojima, 1999)

--IgE (Miller, 2000a)

--IgG (Miller, 2000a)

--IgA (Miller, 2000a)

 --IgM (Miller, 2000a)

--MHC (Betz, 1994)

--MHC (Nei, 1997)

--DQ (Nei, 1997)

--DP (Nei, 1997)

--DR (Nei, 1997)

--SOX3 (Nagai, 2001)

--mitochondrial and nuclear genes (Springer, 1998)

--IgM (Vernersson, 2004)

--IgA (Vernersson, 2004)

--IgG (Vernersson, 2004)

--IgE (Vernersson, 2004)

--mitochondrial DNA (Zardoya, 1996c)

-- αD globin (Cooper, 2006).

--өglobin (Cooper, 2006).

-- ζglobin (Cooper, 2006).

-- RNase A (Cho, 2006).

 

9. DO MAMMALS FORM A CLADE RELATED BY COMMON DESCENT?

Genetic comparisons suggest that mammals are related through descent from common ancestors. Examples of molecules whose study has supported that mammals form a clade include:

--β2 microglobulin (Dijkstra, 2003)

--amino acid and nucleotide sequences (Goodman, 1985)

--β globin (Lee, 1999a)

--prolactin inducible protein (Osawa, 2004)

--seminal vesicle autoantigen (Osawa, 2004)

            --28SrRNA gene (Zardoya, 1996)

--b globin (Goodman, 1974)