GENETICS HOME GENETICS TABLE OF CONTENTS   OBL HOME OBL REFERENCES
GENE CLADOGRAMS: VERTEBRATES

10. DO AMNIOTES (MAMMALS, BIRDS, REPTILES) FORM A CLADE RELATED BY COMMON DESCENT?

Genetic comparisons suggest that amniotes are related through descent from common ancestors. Examples of molecules whose study has supported that amniotes form a clade include:

--c-myc (Atchley, 1995)

--L-myc (Atchley, 1995)

--Max (Atchley, 1995)

--Hand (Atchley, 1997)

 --E12 (Atchley, 1997)

--apoI (Babin, 1997)

--red opsin/pinopsin (Blackshaw, 1999)

--RAG1 (Bernstein, 1996)

--MHC (Betz, 1994)

--MHC (Nei, 1997)

--SOX1(Bowles, 2000)

 --SOX14 (Bowles, 2000)

--RAG1 (Brinkman, 2004)

--RAG2 (Brinkman, 2004)

--amylase (Da Lage, 1998)

--β2 microglobulin (Dijkstra, 2003)

--PPARA: (Escriva, 2002)

--PPARG (Escriva, 2002)

--PPATB (Escriva, 2002)

--TRA (Escriva, 2002)

--KCG2 (Fleishman, 2004)

--CHD1 (Fridolfsson, 1988)

--prothrombin (Frost, 2000)

--keratin hybridization (Fuchs, 1981)

-- ubiquitin (Gamulin from Muller, 1998)

--a globin (Goodman, 1984)

--b globin (Goodman, 1984)

--myoglobin (Goodman, 1981)

--amino acid and nucleotide sequences (Goodman, 1985)

--EPHA 1 (Gu, 2003)

--EPH A3 (Gu, 2003)

--EPH A4 (Gu, 2003)

--EPH A5 (Gu, 2003)

--EPH B1(Gu, 2003)

--EPH B2 (Gu, 2003)

--EPH B3 (Gu, 2003)

--Lck (Gu, 2003)

--Src (Gu, 2003)

--Yes (Gu, 2003)

--KIT (Gu, 2003)

--VEGFR2(Gu, 2003)

 --PDGFRα (Gu, 2003)

--VEGFR3 (Gu, 2003)

--Ron (Gu, 2003)

 --Met (Gu, 2003)

--Hsp90β (Gupta, 1998)

--Hsp90α  (Gupta, 1998)

--transducin Gt1 subunit (Hisatomi, 2002)

--transducin Gt2 subunit (Hisatomi, 2002)

--PDEα’ (Hisatomi, 2002)

--aldolase (Holmes, p. 20)

-- islet sequence  (Jackman, 2000)

--SPARC (Kawasaki, 2004)

--SPARCL1 (Kawasaki, 2004)

--elongation factor 2 (King, 2001)

--blue opsin (Kojima, 1999)

--red opsin (Kojima, 1999)

--RXRα (Koustrouch, 1998)

--bcl-2 (Lanaye, 2004)

--bcl-x (Lanaye, 2004)

--β globin (Lee, 1999a)

--HMGB1 (Liu, 2004)

-- HMGB2 (Liu, 2004)

--slug (Mazanares, 2001)

--IgG/Y/E (Miller, 2000a)

--Mox 2: (Minguillon, 2002)

--Mox1: (Minguillon, 2002)

--Mox: (Minguillon, 2002)

--P-opsin (Moutsaki, 2000)

--SOX21 (Nagai, 2001).

--SOX1 (Nagai, 2001).

--SOX11 (Nagai, 2001)

--SOX10 (Nagai, 2001)

--SOX3 (Nagai, 2001)

--MHC II B  (Nei, 1997).

--MHC (Flajnik, 1991)

--GNAT1 (Nordstrom, 2004)

--GNAT2 (Nordstrom, 2004)

--PDE6C (Nordstrom, 2004)

--CNGA3 (Nordstrom, 2004)

--KCNIP2 (Nordstrom, 2004)

--Pax9 (Ogasawara, 2000)

--Pax1 (Ogasawara, 2000)

--MHCI (Ohta, 2000)

--MHC IIβ  (Ohta, 2000)

--50 gene data set (Peterson, 2004)

--Shh (Takatori, 2002)

--Spi (Shintani, 2000)

--myoglobin (Goodman, 1981)

--a hemoglobin (Goodman, 1981)

--b hemoglobin (Goodman, 1981)

--cytochrome c (Fitch, )

--5S rRNA (Hillis, 1991)

--MHC Class I (Sato, 2000)

--short wave opsin (Shi, 2003)

--Cytoplasmic creatine kinase (Sona, 2004)

--Ca/CaM-dependent protein kinase α (Tombes, 2003).

--Mitochondrial creatine kinase (Sona, 2004)

--carbonic anhydrase 2 (Tufts, 2003)

--IgA (Vernersson, 2004)

--Sonic hedgehog (Zardoya, 1996)

--Indian hedgehog (Zardoya, 1996)           

--mitochondrial DNA (Zardoya, 1996c)

--IFN γ: (Krause, 2005).

--IL28 (Krause, 2005).

--IFN –v (Krause, 2005).

--IFN (Krause, 2005).

--MC1 (Schioth, 2005).

--MC2 (Schioth, 2005).

--MC5 (Schioth, 2005).

--MC3 (Schioth, 2005).

--MC4 (Schioth, 2005).

-- (Cooper, 2006).

-- RNase A (Cho, 2006).

--retinoblastoma (Takemura, 2005).

--Lipid binding protein (De Grassi, 2006)

11. DO TETRAPODS (MAMMALS, BIRDS, REPTILES, AMPHIBIANS) FORM A CLADE RELATED BY COMMON DESCENT?

Genetic comparisons suggest that tetrapods are related through descent from common ancestors. Examples of molecules whose study has supported that tetrapods form a clade include:

--mitochondrial codons (Anderson, 1991)

--c-myc (Atchley, 1995)

--L-myc (Atchley, 1995)

--S-myc (Atchley, 1995)

--As-C (Atchley, 1997)

--MAX (Atchley, 1997)

 --USF (Atchley, 1997)

--RAG1 (Bernstein, 1996)

--IgM (Belov, 1999)

--SOX 23/13 (Bowles, 2000)

--SOX17 (Bowles, 2000)

--SOX18 (Bowles, 2000)

--SOX3 (Bowles, 2000)

--RAG1 (Brinkman, 2004)

--RAG2 (Brinkman, 2004)

--ERVs (Bromham, 2002)

--PPARA: (Escriva, 2002)

--PPARG (Escriva, 2002)

--PPATB (Escriva, 2002)

--TRA (Escriva, 2002)

--TRB (Escriva, 2002)

--FGFR1(Escriva, 2002)

--FGFR 2 (Escriva, 2002)

--FGFR 3 (Escriva, 2002)

--FGFR4(Escriva, 2002)

--β2 microglobulin (Dijkstra, 2003)

--CIK2 (Fleishman, 2004)

--a globin (Goodman, 1984)

--b globin (Goodman, 1984)

-- ubiquitin (Gamulin from Muller, 1998)

--EPH A2 (Gu, 2003)

--EPH A4 (Gu, 2003)

--EPH B1 (Gu, 2003)

--EPH B3 (Gu, 2003)

--EPH B4 (Gu, 2003)

--Lyn (Gu, 2003)

--Src (Gu, 2003)

--Yes (Gu, 2003)

--Fyn (Gu, 2003)

--PDGFRα (Gu, 2003)

--KIT (Gu, 2003)

--Ron (Gu, 2003)

--Met (Gu, 2003)

--transducin Gt1 subunit (Hisatomi, 2002)

--transducin Gt2 subunit (Hisatomi, 2002)

--PDEα’ (Hisatomi, 2002)

--Arrestin (Hisatomi, 2002)

--GC1 (Hisatomi, 2002)

--GC2 (Hisatomi, 2002)

--S-modulin (Hisatomi, 2002)

--PDE α (Hisatomi, 2002)

--PDEβ (Hisatomi, 2002)

--aldolase (Holmes, p. 20)

--oxytocin (Hyodo, 1994)

--TK2 (Jure, 2004).

--SPARC (Kawasaki, 2004)

--SPARCL1 (Kawasaki, 2004)

--bax (Lanaye, 2004)

--bcl-w/xri (Lanaye, 2004)

--bcl-w (Lanaye, 2004)

--NOT (Martinelli, 2004)

--zinc finger C2H2 (Moreira, 2000)

--HoxA1 (Koh, 2003)

--HoxA7 (Koh, 2003)

--HMGB1 (Liu, 2004)

-- HMGB2 (Liu, 2004)

--slug (Mazanares, 2001)

--rhodopsin (Mano, 1999)

--P-opsin (Moutsaki, 2000)

--SOX2 (Nagai, 2001)

--SOX3 (Nagai, 2001)

--α2M (Nakao, 2003).

--C3 (Nakao, 2003). 

--VH genes (Nei, 1997)

--MHC II B  (Nei, 1997).

--MHC (Flajnik, 1991)

--MHC (Betz, 1994)

--Green/red cone opsins (Nordstrom, 2004)

--GNAT1 (Nordstrom, 2004)

--GNAS (Nordstrom, 2004)

--GNA11 (Nordstrom, 2004)

--PDE6A (Nordstrom, 2004)

--PDE6B (Nordstrom, 2004)

--PDE6C (Nordstrom, 2004)

--SAG (Nordstrom, 2004)

--ARR (arrestin) (Nordstrom, 2004)

--RCVI (Nordstrom, 2004)

--MHC IIβ  (Ohta, 2000)

--Ig light chain κ.  (Pilstrom, 2002).

—TK2 (Piskur, 2004)

--MHC Class I (Sato, 2000)

--short wave opsin (Shi, 2003)

--G proteins a S (Suga, 1999)

--G proteins a q (Suga, 1999)

--G proteins a t (Suga, 1999)

--G proteins a o (Suga, 1999)

--G proteins a i1 (Suga, 1999)

--G proteins a i3 (Suga, 1999)

--Shh (Takatori, 2002)

--Ihh (Takatori, 2002)

--Dhh (Takatori, 2002)

 --Ca/CaM-dependent protein kinase γ (Tombes, 2003)

--Ca/CaM-dependent protein kinase β (Tombes, 2003)

--Ca/CaM-dependent protein kinase δ (Tombes, 2003)

--RAG2 and POMC changes (Venkatesh, 2001)

--IgA (Vernersson, 2004)

--IgG/E/Y (Vernersson, 2004)

--IgM  (Wilson, 1997)

--IgG/E/V (Wilson, 1997)

--IgA (Wilson, 1997)

--28SrRNA gene (Zardoya, 1996)

--18S rRNA (Lake, 1990)

--28S rRNA (Zardoya, 1996)

--Sonic hedgehog (Zardoya, 1996)

--Indian hedgehog (Zardoya, 1996)

--cytochrome c (Fitch, )

--5S rRNA (Hillis, 1991)

--12S mitochondrial rRNA (Hillis, 1991)

--16S mitochondrial rRNA (Hillis, 1991)

--DAZ (Xu, 2001)

--mitochondrial DNA (Zardoya, 1996c)

--IL28 (Krause, 2005).

-- V2R (Hashiguchi, 2005).

--retinoblastoma (Takemura, 2005).

 

12. DO TETRAPODS AND SARCOPTERYGIAN FISH FORM A CLADE RELATED BY COMMON DESCENT?

Genetic comparisons suggest that tetrapods and sarcopterygian fish are related through descent from common ancestors. Examples of molecules whose study has supported that tetrapods and sarcopterygian fish form a clade include:

--MHC (Betz, 1994)

--RAG1 (Brinkman, 2004)

--RAG2 (Brinkman, 2004)

--Hox A1 (Koh, 2003)

--Hox A2 (Koh, 2003)

--Hox A6 (Koh, 2003)

--Hox B6 (Koh, 2003)

--Hox B7 (Koh, 2003)

--Hox C4 (Koh, 2003)

--Hox C8 (Koh, 2003)

--Hox C12 (Koh, 2003)

--Hox D1 (Koh, 2003)

--Hox D4 (Koh, 2003)

--Hox D11 (Koh, 2003)

--mitochondrial DNA (Meyer, 1990)

--short wave opsin (Shi, 2003)

--RAG2 changes (Venkatesh, 2001)

            --28SrRNA gene (Zardoya, 1996)

--mitochondrial DNA (Zardoya, 1996c)

--vasotocin (Hyodo, 1994)

--oxytocin (Hyodo, 1994)

13. DO TETRAPODS AND ALL BONY FISH FORM A CLADE RELATED BY COMMON DESCENT?

Genetic comparisons suggest that tetrapods and all bony fish are related through descent from common ancestors. Examples of molecules whose study has supported that tetrapods and all bony fish form a clade include:

--Mx1 (Atchley, 1997)

--MAX (Atchley, 1997)

--apoI (Babin, 1997)

--apoE (Babin, 1997)

--RAG1 (Bernstein, 1996)

--RAG1 (Brinkman, 2004)

--RAG2 (Brinkman, 2004)

--SOX6 (Bowles, 2000)

--SOX23/13 (Bowles, 2000)

--SOX11 (Bowles, 2000)

--SOXE group (Bowles, 2000)

--129 proteins (Douzery, 2004)

--PPARA: (Escriva, 2002)

--FGFR4(Escriva, 2002)

--β2 microglobulin (Dijkstra, 2003)

--MHC (Betz, 1994)

--MHC (Nei, 1997)

--GnRH1 (Fernald, 1999)

--GNRH2 (Fernald, 1999)

--keratin hybridization (Fuchs, 1981)

--a globin (Goodman, 1974)

--amino acid and nucleotide sequences (Goodman, 1985)

--EPH A4 (Gu, 2003)

--EPH B3 (Gu, 2003)

--EPH B4 (Gu, 2003)

--Src (Gu, 2003)

--Yes (Gu, 2003)

--Fyn (Gu, 2003)

--PDGFRα (Gu, 2003)

--PDGFRβ (Gu, 2003)

--VEGFR (Gu, 2003)

--Ron (Gu, 2003)

 --Met (Gu, 2003)

--LCFA transporter (Hirsch, 1998)

--transducin Gt1 subunit (Hisatomi, 2002)

--transducin Gt2 subunit (Hisatomi, 2002)

---GRK1 (Hisatomi, 2002)

--GRK7 (Hisatomi, 2002)

--Arrestin (Hisatomi, 2002)

--GC1 (Hisatomi, 2002)

--GC2 (Hisatomi, 2002)

--vasotocin (Hyodo, 1994)

--oxytocin (Hyodo, 1994)

--SPARC (Kawasaki, 2004)

--SPARCL1 (Kawasaki, 2004)

-- blue opsin (Kojima, 1999)

--red opsin (Kojima, 1999)

--SOX 1 (Koopman, 2004)

--SOX 2 (Koopman, 2004)

--SOX 3 (Koopman, 2004)

--SOX 4 (Koopman, 2004)

--SOX 5 (Koopman, 2004)

--SOX 6 (Koopman, 2004)

--SOX 7 (Koopman, 2004)

--SOX 8 (Koopman, 2004)

--SOX 9 (Koopman, 2004)

--SOX 10 (Koopman, 2004)

--SOX 11 (Koopman, 2004)

--SOX 13 (Koopman, 2004)

--SOX 14 (Koopman, 2004)

--SOX 15 (Koopman, 2004)

--SOX 17 (Koopman, 2004)

--SOX 18 (Koopman, 2004)

--SOX 21 (Koopman, 2004)

--HoxA1 (Koh, 2003)

--HoxA7 (Koh, 2003)

 --bax (Lanaye, 2004)

--bok (Lanaye, 2004)

--mitochondrial DNA (Meyer, 1990)

--C3 (Nakao, 2003). 

--C4 (Nakao, 2003). 

--C5 (Nakao, 2003). 

--α2M (Nakao, 2003). 

--MHC II B  (Nei, 1997).

--MHC (Flajnik, 1991)

--GNG7 (Nordstrom, 2004)

--GNG12 (Nordstrom, 2004)

--GNG9 (Nordstrom, 2004)

--GNG3 (Nordstrom, 2004)

--GNG2 (Nordstrom, 2004)

--GNG8 (Nordstrom, 2004)

--GNG5 (Nordstrom, 2004)

--GNG10 (Nordstrom, 2004)

--Encehalopsin bony (Nordstrom, 2004).

--GNAT1 (Nordstrom, 2004)

--GNAT2 (Nordstrom, 2004)

--GNAI2 (Nordstrom, 2004)

--GNAS (Nordstrom, 2004)

--GNA13 (Nordstrom, 2004)

--GNA12 (Nordstrom, 2004)

--GNB5 (Nordstrom, 2004)

--PDE6B (Nordstrom, 2004)

--PDE6C (Nordstrom, 2004)

--CNGA4 (Nordstrom, 2004)

--CNGA2 (Nordstrom, 2004)

--CNGB1 (Nordstrom, 2004)

--CNGA1 (Nordstrom, 2004)

--CNGA3 (Nordstrom, 2004)

--RHOK (Nordstrom, 2004)

--ARRB2 (arrestin) (Nordstrom, 2004)

--ARR (arrestin) (Nordstrom, 2004)

--CSEN (Nordstrom, 2004)

--KCNIP (Nordstrom, 2004)

--KCNIP2 (Nordstrom, 2004)

--RCVI (Nordstrom, 2004)

--Pax9 (Ogasawara, 2000)

--MHCI (Ohta, 2000)

--50 gene data set (Peterson, 2004)

--rRNA sequences (Mallatt, )

--short wave opsin (Shi, 2003)

--Cytoplasmic creatine kinase (Sona, 2004)

--TGFβ type I (Suga, 1999a)

--Shh (Takatori, 2002)

--DAZ (Xu, 2001)

            --28SrRNA gene (Zardoya, 1996)

--28S rRNA (Zardoya, 1996)

--Sonic hedgehog (Zardoya, 1996)

--Indian hedgehog (Zardoya, 1996)

--cytochrome c (Fitch, )

--5S rRNA (Hillis, 1991)

--opsins (Philp, 2000)

--MHC Class I (Sato, 2000)

--Mitochondrial creatine kinase (Sona, 2004)

--mitochondrial DNA (Zardoya, 1996c)

-- (Hashiguchi, 2005).

-retinoblastoma (Takemura, 2005).

14. DO GNATHOSTOMES (JAWED VERTEBRATES) FORM A CLADE RELATED BY COMMON DESCENT?

Genetic comparisons suggest that gnathostomes are related through descent from common ancestors. Examples of molecules whose study has supported that gnathostomes form a clade include:

            --RAG1 (Bernstein, 1996)

--RAG1 (Brinkman, 2004)

--RAG2 (Brinkman, 2004)

--TRA (Escriva, 2002)

--TRB (Escriva, 2002)

--myoglobin (Goodman, 1981)

--rhodopsin (Kojima, 1999)

--opsins (Mano, 1999)         

--rRNA sequences (Mallatt, )

            --opsin (Blackshaw, 1999)

--myoglobin (Goodman, 1981)

--a hemoglobin (Goodman, 1981)

--b hemoglobin (Goodman, 1981)

--amino acid and nucleotide sequences (Goodman, 1985)

-- islet sequence  (Jackman, 2000)

--VH genes (Nei, 1997)

 --MHC IIα  (Ohta, 2000).

--MHC Class I (Sato, 2000)

--carbonic anhydrase (Tufts, 2003)

--RAG changes (Venkatesh, 2001)

--Ig Wilson, 1997)

15. DO VERTEBRATES FORM A CLADE RELATED BY COMMON DESCENT?

Genetic comparisons suggest that vertebrates are related through descent from common ancestors. Examples of molecules whose study has supported that vertebrates form a clade include:

--myc (Atchley, 1997)

--FGFR (Escriva, 2002)

            --hemoglobin (Goodman, 1988)

--myoglobin (Goodman, 1981)

--aldolase (Holmes, p. 20)

--vasotocin (Hyodo, 1994)

--oxytocin (Hyodo, 1994)

--RH1 rhodopsin (Hisatomi, 2002)

--PRLH vert (Lagerstrom, 2005)

--rhodopsin (Kojima, 1999)

--Hox8 (Koh, 2003)

--Hox12 (Koh, 2003)

--HMGB (Liu, 2004)

--AmphiFoxB: (Mazet, 2002)

--rRNA sequences (Mallatt, )

--number of posterior Hox genes (Martinez, 1999)          

--rhodopsin (Mano, 1999)

--P-opsin (Moutsaki, 2000)

--α2M (Nakao, 2003).

--C3 (Nakao, 2003). 

--Rhodopsin (Nordstrom, 2004)

--VA/pinopsin vertebrates (Nordstrom, 2004)

--Pax9 (Ogasawara, 2000)

--Spi (Shintani, 2000)

--Lipid binding protein (De Grassi, 2006)

--Cytochrome c (De Grassi, 2006)

16. DO CRANIATES FORM A CLADE RELATED BY COMMON DESCENT?

Genetic comparisons suggest that craniates are related through descent from common ancestors. Examples of molecules whose study has supported that craniates form a clade include:

--TR (Escriva, 2002)

--prothrombin (Frost, 2000)

--keratin hybridization (Fuchs, 1981)

--globin (Goodman, 1981)

--18S rRNA (Lake, 1990)

--Hox 10 (Stadler, 2004)

--Hox13 (Stadler, 2004)