GENETICS HOME GENETICS TABLE OF CONTENTS   OBL HOME OBL REFERENCES
GENE CLADOGRAMS: EUKARYOTES

17. DO CHORDATES FORM A CLADE RELATED BY COMMON DESCENT?

Genetic comparisons suggest that chordates are related through descent from common ancestors. Examples of molecules whose study has supported that chordates (lancelets and craniates) form a clade include:

--PPAR (Escriva, 2002)

--FGFR (Escriva, 2002)

--Hox1 (Koh, 2003)

--Hox2 (Koh, 2003)

--Hox3 (Koh, 2003)

--Hox4 (Koh, 2003)

--Hox5 (Koh, 2003)

--Hox6 (Koh, 2003)

--Hox7 (Koh, 2003)

--Hox8 (Koh, 2003)

--Hox9 (Koh, 2003)

--Hox10 (Koh, 2003)

--Hox11 (Koh, 2003)

--Hox12 (Koh, 2003)

--Hox13 (Koh, 2003)

--islet sequence  (Jackman, 2000)

--Hox (Koh, 2003)

--Bcl family chordates (Lanaye, 2004)

--HMGB (Liu, 2004)

--AmphiFoxB: (Mazet, 2002)

--Mox: (Minguillon, 2002)

--Pax1/9 (Ogasawara, 2000)

--Cytoplasmic creatine kinase (Sona, 2004)

--Pax (Sun, 1997)

--Gsh-1 (Martinelli, 2004)

--AmphiTrk (Benito-Guitierrez, 2005)

 

Examples of molecules whose study has supported that urochordates (tunicates) form a clade with cephalochordates (lancelets and craniates) include:

--TR (Escriva, 2002)

--129 proteins (Douzery, 2004)

            --islet sequence  (Jackman, 2000)

--SPARC (Kawasaki, 2004)

--GnRHR (Kusakabe, 2002)

--rRNA sequences (Mallatt, )

--Gsh-1 (Martinelli, 2004)

--Dach (Mazet, 2005)

--Eya (Mazet, 2005)

--GNB5 (Nordstrom, 2004)

--ARRB (arrestin) (Nordstrom, 2004)

--KCNIP (Nordstrom, 2004)

--VSNL (Nordstrom, 2004)

--Mitochondrial creatine kinase (Sona, 2004)

--50 genes (Rokas, 2005)

--Lipid binding protein (De Grassi, 2006)

 

18. DO DEUTEROSTOMES FORM A CLADE RELATED BY COMMON DESCENT?

Genetic comparisons suggest that deuterostomes are related through descent from common ancestors. Examples of molecules whose study has supported that deuterostomes form a clade include:

--myc (Atchley, 1997)

            --absence of introns in first tow Hox genes (Marinez, 1999)

--18S rRNA (Lake, 1990)

--5S rRNA (Hillis, 1991)

--12S mitochondrial rRNA (Hillis, 1991)

--16S mitochondrial rRNA (Hillis, 1991)

--Hox 1 (Mito, 2000)

--Hox 8 (Mito, 2000)

--Hox 1 (Mito, 2000)

--Hox 3 (Mito, 2000)

--duplication of medial Hox4-5 (Marinez, 1999)

--HMGB (Liu, 2004)

--seven housekeeping genes (Peterson, 2005).

19. DO COELOMATES FORM A CLADE RELATED BY COMMON DESCENT?

Genetic comparisons suggest that coelomates are related through descent from common ancestors.

Friedrich, 1995


Chordates         Echinoderms                           PROTOSTOMES


--18S rRNA; Lake1990 (chordates are human, frog, lancet, tunicate)

 

Examples of molecules whose study has supported that coleomates form a clade include:

--Hen (Atchley, 1997)

 --Twist (Atchley, 1997)

 --As-C (Atchley, 1997)

 --NEX (Atchley, 1997)

 --MyoD (Atchley, 1997)

 --Sim (Atchley, 1997)

 --Hairy (Atchley, 1997)

 --SREBP (Atchley, 1997)

--SOXD group(Bowles, 2000)

-- SOXB1 (Bowles, 2000)

--SOXF group (Bowles, 2000)

--SOXE group (Bowles, 2000)

--SOXB1 (Bowles, 2000)

 --introns of SOX D, E, and F groups (Bowles, 2000)

            --opsin (Blackshaw, 1999)

--leukotriene NR  (de Mendonca, 2000)

--ecdysone/oxysterol  (de Mendonca, 2000)

--retinoic acid  (de Mendonca, 2000)

--FTZ-F1 (de Mendonca, 2000)

--amylase (Da Lage, 1998)

--α tubulin (Dutcher, 2001).

--β tubulin (Dutcher, 2001).

--γ tubulin (Dutcher, 2001).

--tailless (Enmark, 2001)

--HNF (Enmark, 2001)

--COUP/7UP (Enmark, 2001)

--RXR (Enmark, 2001)

--USP (Enmark, 2001)

--Nurr1/DHR38 (Enmark, 2001)

--ERB/E75 (Enmark, 2001)

--RZR/DHR3 (Enmark, 2001)

-- FXR/ECR (Enmark, 2001)

--FTZ/SF1 (Enmark, 2001)

--globins (Goodman, 1974)

--Hsp90 (Gupta, 1998)

--18S rRNA (Aguinaldo, 1997)

--KCD3/CIKL (Fleishman, 2004)

 --CIKG/CIKW (Fleishman, 2004)

--LGR/LHR (Hsu, 2003)

-- islet sequence  (Jackman, 2000)

--TK2/dNK (Jure, 2004).

--elongation factor 2 (King, 2001)

--18S rRNA (Lake, 1990)

--zinc finger C2H2 (Moreira, 2000)

--Fibronectin  (Muller, 2001).

--18S rRNA (Field, 1988)

--topoisomerase (Gadele, 2003)

--Eph (Gu, 2003).

--HSP70 (Gupta, 1994)

--LCFA transporter (Hirsch, 1998)

--57 enzyme sequences (Doolittle, 1996)

--5S rRNA (Hillis, 1991)

--Ems/x (Martinelli, 2004).

--scratch (Mazanares, 2001)

 --snail (Mazanares, 2001)

--Dach (Mazet, 2005)

--Eya (Mazet, 2005)

--Hox 1 (Mito, 2000)

--Mox: (Minguillon, 2002)

--Id (Muller, 2003)

---Twist (Muller, 2003)

--Myc (Muller, 2003)

--MyoD  (Muller, 2003)

--Ig  (Muller, 2001)

--Ser/Thr kinase domain  (Muller, 2001)

--α2M (Nakao, 2003)

--atonal (Seipel, 2004)

--Hox 2 (Stadler, 2004)

--Hox12 (Stadler, 2004)

--Hox10 (Stadler, 2004)

--Flagellar creatine kinase (Sona, 2004)

--Mitochondrial creatine kinase (Sona, 2004)

--G proteins a o (Suga, 1999)

--G proteins a i (Suga, 1999)

--TGFβ type I (Suga, 1999a)

--CSK (Suga, 2001)

--tec (Suga, 2001)

--abl (Suga, 2001)

--ALK/Tk (Suga, 2001)

--IR (Suga, 2001)

--ror/MuSK (Suga, 2001)

--klg (Suga, 2001)

--PDGFR (Suga, 2001)

--FGFR (Suga, 2001)

--ret (Suga, 2001)

--Eph (Suga, 2001)

--FAK (Suga, 2001)

--ACK (Suga, 2001)

--EGFR (Suga, 2001)

--GATA1 (Teakle, 1998)

--GATA2/3 (Teakle, 1998)

--GATA 4/5 (Teakle, 1998)

--Ca/CaM-dependent protein kinase (Tombes, 2003).

--DAZ (Xu, 2001)

-- Lipid binding protein (De Grassi, 2006)

--Cytochrome c vert, (De Grassi, 2006)

--seven housekeeping genes (Peterson, 2005).

 

20. DO BILATERANS (PRIMITIVE WORMS AND COELOMATES) FORM A CLADE RELATED BY COMMON DESCENT?

Genetic comparisons suggest that bilaterans are related through descent from common ancestors. Examples of molecules whose study has supported that bilaterans form a clade include:

--SOXD group (Bowles, 2000)

--SOXC group (Bowles, 2000)

--SOXB1 (Bowles, 2000)

--SOXB2 (Bowles, 2000)

--RXR (de Mendonca, 2000)

--FTZ-F1 (de Mendonca, 2000)

            --18S rRNA (Field, 1988)

            --globins (Zhu, 1992)

--18S rRNA (Field, 1988)

--rRNA (Friedrich, 1995)

--topoisomerase (Gadele, 2003)

--Hox1 (Gauchat, 2000)

--NK (Gauchat, 2000)

--eve(Gauchat, 2000)

--Msx (Gauchat, 2000)

--Emx (Gauchat, 2000)

--Eph (Gu, 2003)

--HSP70 (Gupta, 1994)

--5S rRNA (Hillis, 1991)

--SPARC (Kawasaki, 2004)

--SOX 5/6/13/D (Koopman, 2004)

--SOXC/4/11/12 (Koopman, 2004)

--SOXF/17/18 (Koopman, 2004)

--SOXE/8/10/9 (Koopman, 2004)

--SOX14/B2(Drosophila) (Koopman, 2004)

--SOXB2 (Koopman, 2004)

--SOX3/19 (Koopman, 2004)

--SOXB1/2/1 (Koopman, 2004)

--SOXB1/3/19 (Koopman, 2004)

--Pax (Miller, 2000)

--Galectin (Muller, 2001)

--50 gene data set (Peterson, 2004)

--DAZ (Xu, 2001)

 --Cytochrome c (De Grassi, 2006)

21. DO METAZOANS (CNIDARIANS AND BILATERANS) FORM A CLADE RELATED BY COMMON DESCENT?

Genetic comparisons suggest that metazoans are related through descent from common ancestors. Examples of molecules whose study has supported that metazoans form a clade include:

--Hox1 (Gauchat, 2000)

--NK (Gauchat, 2000)

--eve(Gauchat, 2000)

--Msx (Gauchat, 2000)

--Emx (Gauchat, 2000)

--LGR/LHR (Hsu, 2003)

--RXR (Koustrouch, 1998)

--Id (Muller, 2003)

--Ash (Muller, 2003)

--Twist (Muller, 2003)

--Net (Muller, 2003)

--bHLH  (Muller, 2003)

--Ash (Seipel, 2004)

--Atonal (Seipel, 2004)

--Brachyury (Spring, 2002)

--Mef (Spring, 2002)

--Snail  (Spring, 2002)

--G proteins a S (Suga, 1999)

--G proteins a q (Suga, 1999)

 --G proteins a i (Suga, 1999)

--seven housekeeping genes (Peterson, 2005).

 

22. DO ANIMALS FORM A CLADE RELATED BY COMMON DESCENT?

Genetic comparisons suggest that animals are related through descent from common ancestors. Examples of molecules whose study has supported that animals form a clade include:

PROTOSTOMES                                           Deuterostome           Cnidarians

 

18S rRNA sequences, Aguinaldo, 1997.

            --18S and 28S rRNA (Friedrich, 1995)

--18S rRNA (Aguinaldo, 1997)

--unconventional myosin class VI (Baker, 1997)

--type IV collagen (Boute, 1997)

--129 proteins (Douzery, 2004)

-- ubiquitin (Gamulin from Muller, 1998)

--HSP70 (Gupta, 1994)

--elongation factor 2 (King, 2001)

--a tubulin (King, 2001)

--b tubulin (King, 2001)

--actin (King, 2001)

--nuclear receptors (Kostrouch, 1998)

--Not  (Martinelli, 2004)

--GSX  (Martinelli, 2004)

--Pax (Miller, 2000)

--zinc finger C2H2 (Moreira, 2000)

--SRCR (Muller, 2001)

--SCR  (Muller, 2001)

--death domain  (Muller, 2001a)

--Protein tyrosine phosphates (Muller, 2001).

--Ig (Muller, 2001)

--Ser/Thr kinase domain  (Muller, 2001)

--integrins (Muller, 2001)

--fibroncetin (Muller, 2001)

--18S rRNA (Field, 1988)

--Flagellar creatine kinase (Sona, 2004)

--Mitochondrial creatine kinase (Sona, 2004)

--G proteins a S (Suga, 1999)

 --G proteins a q (Suga, 1999)

--G proteins a 15/16  (Suga, 1999)

--G proteins a o (Suga, 1999)

--G proteins a i (Suga, 1999)

--fes/fps (Suga, 2001)

--ros/sev (Suga, 2001)

--ror/MuSK (Suga, 2001)

--Eph (Suga, 2001)

--syk (Suga, 2001)

--HTK16 (Suga, 2001)

--EGFR (Suga, 2001)

--CSK (Suga, 2001)

--Pax (Sun, 1997)

--Ca/CaM-dependent protein kinase (Tombes, 2003).

--TGFβ type I (Suga, 1999a)

--seven housekeeping genes (Peterson, 2005).

 

23. DO EUKARYOTES FORM A CLADE RELATED BY COMMON DESCENT?

Genetic comparisons suggest that eukaryotes are related through descent from common ancestors. Some lineages of eukaryotes seem to be more closely related to animals than others.

23a. Genetic comparisons suggest that animals and choanoflagellates are related through descent from common ancestors. Examples of molecules whose study has supported that animals and choanoflagellates form a clade include:

--elongation factor 2 (King, 2001)

--a tubulin (King, 2001)

--b tubulin (King, 2001)

--actin (King, 2001)

--129 proteins (Douzery, 2004)

--50 genes (Rokas, 2005)

23b. Genetic comparisons suggest that animals and fungi are related through descent from common ancestors. Examples of molecules whose study has supported that animals and fungi form a clade include:

--mitochondrial codons (Anderson, 1991)

--129 proteins (Douzery, 2004)

--elongation factor 2 (King, 2001)

--a tubulin (King, 2001)

--b tubulin (King, 2001)

--actin (King, 2001)

--Protein tyrosine phosphates (Muller, 2001)

--Ser/Thr kinase domain (Muller, 2001)

--Galectin (Muller, 2001)

--Ig  (Muller, 2001)

--G proteins (Suga, 1999)

--seven housekeeping genes (Peterson, 2005).

23c. Genetic comparisons suggest that all eukaryotes are related through descent from common ancestors. Examples of molecules whose study has supported that all eukaryotes form a clade include:

--bHLH (Atchley, 1997)

--unconventional myosin class V (Baker, 1997)

--unconventional myosin class VII (Baker, 1997)

--unconventional myosin class I (Baker, 1997)

            --opsin (Bieske, 1999)

--129 proteins (Douzery, 2004)

--α tubulin (Dutcher, 2001).

--β tubulin (Dutcher, 2001).

--γ tubulin (Dutcher, 2001).

-- δ tubulin (Dutcher, 2001).

            --18S rRNA (Field, 1988)

--topoisomerase (Gadele, 2003)

--Hsp90 (Gupta, 1998)

            --16S rRNA (Pace, 1986)

--globins (Zhu, 1992)

--18S rRNA (Field, 1988)

--elongation factor 2 (King, 2001)

--a tubulin (King, 2001)

--b tubulin (King, 2001)

--actin (King, 2001)

--CDC28 (Krylov, 2003)

--KIN28 (Krylov, 2003)

--IME2 (Krylov, 2003)

--YAK1(Krylov, 2003)

--CK1 (Krylov, 2003)

--CMK1 (Krylov, 2003)

--translation initiation factor (Kyrpides, 1998)

--HMG (Koopman, 2004)

--protein phosphatase PP1 genes (Lin, 1999)

--Ig  (Muller, 2001)

--HMG (Nagai, 2001)

--IleRS sequence (Brown, 1995)

--cytochrome c (Fitch, )

--aldolase (Holmes, p. 20)

--57 enzyme sequences (Doolittle, 1996)

--57 enzyme sequences (Feng, 1997)

-- ubiquitin (Gamulin from Muller, 1998)

--Ser/Thr kinase domain  (Muller, 2001)

--HSP70 (Gupta, 1994)

--elongation factor EF-G2 sequence (Baldauf, 1996)

--5S rRNA (Hillis, 1991)

--50 gene data set (Peterson, 2004)

--GATA (Teakle, 1998)

--tRNA (Tong, 2004)

--phenylalanine-tRNA synthetase (Woese, 2000)

--aspartic acid-tRNA synthetase (Woese, 2000)

--glycine-tRNA synthetase (Woese, 2000)

--glutamine-tRNA synthetase (Woese, 2000)

--glutamic acid-tRNA synthetase (Woese, 2000)

--leucine-tRNA synthetase (Woese, 2000)

--lysine-tRNA synthetase (Woese, 2000)

--ileucine-tRNA synthetase (Woese, 2000)

--methionine-tRNA synthetase (Woese, 2000)

--tyrosine-tRNA synthetase (Woese, 2000)

--tryptophan-tRNA synthetase (Woese, 2000)

--valine-tRNA synthetase (Woese, 2000)

--rRNA (Xu, 2002)

--seven housekeeping genes (Peterson, 2005).