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GENE CLADOGRAMS: ALL LIFE

24. DOES ALL LIFE FORM A CLADE RELATED BY COMMON DESCENT?

Genetic comparisons suggest that all living things are related through descent from common ancestors. Some molecules indicate that archebacteria are more closely related to eukaryotes than are eubacteria. (Of course, if the first eukaryotes resulted from a fusion of archebateria and eubacteria, neither branch would be more closely related to eukaryotes although individual molecules would suggest one relationship or the other depending on the origin of each molecule.) Examples of molecules whose study has supported that archebacteria and eukaryotes form a clade include:

--elongation factor EF-G2 sequence (Baldauf, 1996)

--57 enzyme sequences (Doolittle, 1996)

--presence of ubiquitin (Gamulin from Muller, 1998)

--signal recognition particle (Hainzi, 2002)

--translation initiation factor (Kyrpides, 1998)

--glycine-tRNA synthetase (Woese, 2000)

--leucine-tRNA synthetase (Woese, 2000)

--tyrosine-tRNA synthetase (Woese, 2000)

--tryptophan-tRNA synthetase (Woese, 2000)

Examples of molecules whose study has supported that all living things form a clade include:

        --elongation factor EF-G2 sequence (Baldauf, 1996)

--opsin (Bieske, 1999)

--IleRS sequence (Brown, 1995)

-- tRNAs (Bompfunewerer, 2005).

-- globin (Lecomte, 2005)

--amylase (Da Lage, 1998)

--57 enzyme sequences (Doolittle, 1996)

--57 enzyme sequences (Feng, 1997)

--topoisomerase (Gadele, 2003)

--HSP70 (Gupta, 1994)

--Hsp60 (Gupta, 1998)

--Hsp90 (Gupta, 1998)

--LCFA transporter (Hirsch, 1998)

--Fibroncetin  (Muller, 2001)

--Ser/Thr kinase domain (Muller, 2001)

--16S rRNA (Pace, 1986)

—TK1 (Piskur, 2004)

--tRNA (Tong, 2004)

--arginine-tRNA synthetase (Woese, 2000)

--aspargine-tRNA synthetase (Woese, 2000)

--aspartic acid-tRNA synthetase (Woese, 2000)

--cysteine-tRNA synthetase (Woese, 2000)

--glycine-tRNA synthetase (Woese, 2000)

--glutamine-tRNA synthetase (Woese, 2000)

--glutamic acid-tRNA synthetase (Woese, 2000)

--histidine-tRNA synthetase (Woese, 2000)

--phenylalanine-tRNA synthetase (Woese, 2000)

--leucine-tRNA synthetase (Woese, 2000)

--lysine-tRNA synthetase (Woese, 2000)

--ileucine-tRNA synthetase (Woese, 2000)

--methionine-tRNA synthetase (Woese, 2000)

--proline-tRNA synthetase (Woese, 2000)

--serine-tRNA synthetase (Woese, 2000)

--threonine-tRNA synthetase (Woese, 2000)

--tryptophan-tRNA synthetase (Woese, 2000)

--tyrosine-tRNA synthetase (Woese, 2000)

--valine-tRNA synthetase (Woese, 2000)

--rRNA (Xu, 2002)

16SrRNA (Yoon, 2004) 

            --globins (Zhu, 1992)

PHYLOGENY BASED ON ELONGATION FACTOR EF-G/2

Baldauf 1996

chart

chart

--amino acid sequences of 57 enzymes; Feng, 1997. 

heat shock proteins (HSP70) (after Gupta, 1994) [the original gave data for two HSP70 sequences for some of the eukaryotic species; the endoplasmic reticulum form was used here.  The unlabelled lines on the tree below depict protists except for the second line from the left which is yeast; humans are represented on the ninth line from the left.]

chart

Deuterostomes    Protostomes    Pseudocoel.    Fungi     Plants   Protists    Archebact.   Eubact.

 

chart

--amino acids of 57 enzymes; Doolittle, 1996.


Animals    Plants    Fungi     Protists               ARCHAEA                          EUBACTERIA

chart

Morell, 1997; based on Woese

IleRS gene sequence; Brown, 1995. (humans far left branch)

 

EUKARYOTES                                  ARCHAEA                              EUBACTERIA

chart

MAMMALS              BIRDS  REPT.  AMPH  FISH   INVERT    PLANT   FUNGI

chart


--cytochrome c sequence; Fitch