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GENE CLADOGRAMS: LINEAGES OTHER THAN THOSE OF THE HUMAN LINEAGE
All groups of living things which have been studied form a hierarchy of clades. Such a hierarchy of clades is only explained by evolution.

NEMATODE PHYLOGENY from 53 small subunit ribosomal sequences

Blaxter, 1998; Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Ostertagia ostertagi, Haemonchus contortus, Syngamus trachea, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Dolichorhabditis sp., Rhabditells axei, Rhabditis blumi, Caenorhabditis briggsae, Caenorhabditis elegans, Diploscapter sp., Pristionchus iheritieri, Pristionchus pacificus, Aduncospiculum halicti, Teratorhabditis palmarum, Panagrellus redivivus, Panagrolaimus sp., Strongyloides stercoralis, Strongyloides ratti, Steinernema carpocapse, Bursaphelenchus sp., Aphelenchus avenae, Globodera pallida, Meloidogyne arenaria, Zeldia punctata, Acrobeles complexus, Ascaris suum, Anisakis sp., Toxocara canis, Brugia malayi, Dirofilaria immitis, Philonema sp., Brumptaemillus justini, Dentosomella sp., Teratocephalus lirellus, Plectus aquatilis, Plectus acuminatus, Diplolaimelloides meyli, Bunonema sp., Metachromadora sp., Praeacanthonchus sp., Paratrichodorus pachydermus, Paratrichodorus anemones, Trichodorus primitivus, Prismatolaimus intermedius, Longidorus elongatus, Xiphenema rivesi, Mermis nigrescens, Mylonchulus arenicolus, Trichinella spiralis, Trichuris muris, Adoncholaimus sp., Priapulus caudatus, Chordodes morgani

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insects; rRNA sequences; Cano, 1993.

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--arthropods; chromosomal rearrangements, Boore, 1995.

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Rodents from Liu 2001;

Plant Relationships based on the presence of 3 mitochondrial introns, DNA sequencing and hybridization.

Qiu, Nature 394: 671-673.

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Waddell, Peter.  Assessing the Cretaceous Superordinal Divergence Times within Birds and Placental Mammals by using whole mitochondrial protein sequences.  Syst.  Biol.  48: 119-137.  1999.

 

--amino acid sequences of mitochondrial proteins

Rhea        Ostrich                   Duck               Chicken                Falcon                        Passerine        Alligator

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 Soltis, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci 92: 2647-2651; Chloroplast rbcL

OTHER CLADES SUPPORTED

TWO CHIMP SPECIES

--mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II (Ruvulo, 1994)

 

OLD WORLD MONKEYS, COLOBINES

            --lysozyme amino acid sequences (Messier, 1997)

OLD WORLD MONKEYS, CERCOPITHECINES

            --lysozyme amino acid sequences (Messier, 1997)

OLD WORLD MONKEYS, COLOBINES AND CERCOPITHECINES

            --lysozyme amino acid sequences (Messier, 1997)

NEW WORLD MONKEYS, CEBIDAE

            --g globin  (Chiu, 1996)

            --e globin sequences (Goodman, 1998)

            --e globin sequences (Schneider, 1996)

            --IRBP intron sequences (Scheneider, 1996)

NEW WORLD MONKEYS, PITHECIIDAE

            --e globin sequences (Goodman, 1998)

            --e globin sequences (Schneider, 1996)

            --IRBP intron sequences (Scheneider, 1996)

NEW WORLD MONKEYS, ATELIDAE

            --g globin  (Chiu, 1996)

            --e globin sequences (Goodman, 1998)

            --e globin sequences (Schneider, 1996)

            --IRBP intron sequences (Scheneider, 1996)

NEW WORLD MONKEYS

            --g globin  (Chiu, 1996)

            --e globin sequences (Goodman, 1998)

            --e globin sequences (Schneider, 1996)

            --IRBP intron sequences (Scheneider, 1996)

LEMURS

            --cytochrome b gene sequence (Yoder, 1996)

Mitochondrial cytochrome b:(Roos, 2004)

SINEs (Roos, 2004)

 

LEMURS AND AYE-AYE

            --cytochrome b gene sequence (Yoder, 1996)

LORISES

            --cytochrome b gene sequence (Yoder, 1996)

LEMURS AND LORISES

            --cytochrome b gene sequence (Yoder, 1996)

Mitochondrial cytochrome b:(Roos, 2004)

SINEs (Roos, 2004)

 

Artiodactyls:

DRA (Edwards, 1997)

DRB (Edwards, 1997)

--PAG (Hughes, 2000)

--combined data from 314 phylogenies (Liu 2001a)

--rRNA (Messenger, 1998)

 

WHALES AND ARTIODACTYLS

--retroposons (Shimamura, 1997)

Molecular analyses using a variety of molecules (including α crystallin, serum proteins, cytochrome c, albumins, ribonuclease, myoglobin, β hemoglobin, mitochondrial DNA, cytochrome b, casein, SINES, fibrogen, rDNA, and protamine) have demonstrated the close relationship between whales and artiodactyls (Thewissen, 1998).

 

DEER

            --mt DNA (Miyamoto, 1990)

Artiodactyls and whales

--rRNA (Messenger, 1998)

 

Artiodactyls and Perissodactyls

            DRA (Edwards, 1997)

            DRB (Edwards, 1997)

--myoglobin (Goodman, 1974)

--a globin (Goodman, 1974)

--b globin (Goodman, 1974)

--mitochondrial DNA (Higuchi, 1984)

--combined data from 314 phylogenies (Liu 2001a)

 

EDENTATES

--rRNA (Hoss, 1996)

--combined data from 314 phylogenies (Liu 2001a)

carnivores

--combined data from 314 phylogenies (Liu 2001a)

--immunological distance (O’Brien, 1985)

 

bats

--combined data from 314 phylogenies (Liu 2001a)

--12SrRNA (Hollar, 1997)

--valine tRNA (Hollar, 1997)

Magachiropterans

--12SrRNA (Hollar, 1997)

--valine tRNA (Hollar, 1997)

1 fam fruit bats

--mit 12SrRNA and valine tRNA (Hollar, 1997)

 

 

rodents

--combined data (Liu 2001a)

--eosinophil associated Rnase (Zhang, 2000b)

marsups

--mitochondrial and nuclear genes (Springer, 1998)

--mitochondrial DNA (Thomas, 1989)

 

ARCHOSAUR

--rRNA (Hedges, 1995)

--rhodopsin (Kojima, 1999)

--Spi (Shintani, 2000)

--ERVs (Bromham, 2002)

--amino acid and nucleotide sequences (Goodman, 1985)

 

 

BIRDS

--prothrombin (Frost, 2000)

--rRNA (Hedges, 1995)

 

--oscine, sub, passerine; RAG1 (Barker, 2004).

 

BIRDS AND REPTILES

--RAG1 (Brinkman, 2004)

--rRNA (Hedges, 1995)

--rhodopsin (Kojima, 1999)

--P-opsin (Moutsaki, 2000)

TSox (SPotila, 1994)

--short wave opsin (Shi, 2003)

 

ERVs (Bromham, 2002)

 

 

 

AMPHIBIANS

--rhodopsin (Kojima, 1999)

TELEOSTS

--rhodopsin (Kojima, 1999)

--exorhodopsin (Mano, 1999)

--rhodopsin (Moutsaki, 2000)

--red opsin (Moutsaki, 2000)

--carbonic anhydrase ganth, teleosts (Tufts, 2003)

--intron distribution (Venkatesh, 1999) 

 

ACTINOPTERYGIANS

--MHC Class I (Sato, 2000) gnath, osteich, tet, amn, plac3ent

 

--opsins (Philp, 2000)

--intron distribution (Venkatesh, 1999)

 

NEOPTERYGIANS

--intron distribution (Venkatesh, 1999)

 

hemichordates and echin

--18srRNA  (Cameron, 2000)

 

 

PROTOSTOMES

            --18S rRNA (Aguinaldo, 1997)

--rRNA (Friedrich, 1995)

 

ANNELIDS

            --globin (Goodman, 1988)

MOLLUSKS

            --globin (Goodman, 1988)

BIVALVES

            --globin (Goodman, 1988)

GASTROPODS

            --globin (Goodman, 1988)

 

FLIES

--amylase (Da Lage, 1998)

 

INSECTS

--rRNA (Cano, 1993)

--18S rRNA (Canterino, 2002)

--amylase (Da Lage, 1998)

--rRNA (Friedrich, 1995)

 

Pterygotes

--18S rRNA (Canterino, 2002)

 

Neopterygotes

--18S rRNA (Canterino, 2002)

 

INSECT ORDERS (Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Orthoptera, etc; some paraphyletic)

--18S rRNA (Canterino, 2002)

 

INSECTS AND CRUSTACEANS

            --18S and 28S rRNA (Friedrich, 1995)

            --globin (Goodman, 1988)

            --hemocyanin gene family (Terwilliger, 1999)

ARTHROPODS

            --Mitochondrial Gene Arrangements (Boore, Jeffrey.  1995)

            --18S and 28S rRNA (Friedrich, 1995)

--chromosomal structure (Abele, 1989)

 

INSECTS AND MYRIAPODS

--mitochondrial DNA rearrangements (Boore, 1995)

 

CRUSTACEANS

--mitochondrial DNA rearrangements (Boore, 1995)

CHELICERATA

--mitochondrial DNA rearrangements (Boore, 1995)

 

ARTHROPODS, MOLLUSCS, ANNELIDS

            --Mitochondrial Gene Arrangements (Boore, Jeffrey.  1995)

 

ARTHROPODS, MOLLUSCS, ANNELIDS, NEMATODES

            --Mitochondrial Gene Arrangements (Boore, Jeffrey.  1995)

 

NEMATODES

            --small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences (Blaxter, 1998); 5 clades within nematodes supported

 

 

 

ANGIOSPERMS

--carbonic anhydrase (Holmes, p. 101)

            --chloroplast rbcL gene (Soltis, 1995)

            --chloroplast rbcL gene (Soltis, 1992)

--3 mitochondrial introns, DNA sequences, and DNA hybridization (Qiu, )

--mitochondrial introns and exons (Laroche, 1997)

--HSP70 (Gupta, 1994)

--16SrRNA (Yoon, 2004) 

18S rDNA, rbcL, atpB sequences(Soltis, 2000)

 

 

ANGIOSPERMS, GNETOPHYTES

            --chloroplast rbcL gene (Soltis, 1995)

 

GYMNOPSPERMS (paraphyletic)

            --chloroplast rbcL gene (Soltis, 1995)

--chloroplast rbcL gene (Soltis, 1992)

18S rDNA, rbcL, atpB sequences(Soltis, 2000)

 

 

SEED PLANTS

            --chloroplast rbcL gene (Soltis, 1995)

            --chloroplast rbcL gene (Soltis, 1992)

--3 mitochondrial introns, DNA sequences, and DNA hybridization (Qiu, )

--16SrRNA (Yoon, 2004) 

LEGUMES

            --globin (Goodman, 1988)

 

FERNS

            --three mitochondrial introns (Qiu, 1998)

 

VASCULAR PLANTS

16SrRNA (Yoon, 2004) 

 

LAND PLANTS AFTER DIVERGENCE OF LIVERWORTS

            --three mitochondrial introns (Qiu, 1998)

--3 mitochondrial introns, DNA sequences, and DNA hybridization (Qiu, )

 

LAND PLANTS INCLUDING LIVERWORTS

            --chloroplast rbcL gene (Soltis, 1992)

--3 mitochondrial introns, DNA sequences, and DNA hybridization (Qiu, )

--mitochondrial introns and exons (Laroche, 1997)

--chloroplast rbcL gene (Soltis, 1992)

--53 chloroplast genes (Sankoff, 2000)

--16SrRNA (Yoon, 2004) 

 

LAND PLANTS AND ALGAE

--carbonic anhydrase (Holmes, p. 101)

--53 chloroplast genes (Sankoff, 2000)

--16SrRNA (Yoon, 2004) 

 

 

foraminifera and subgroups (Pawlowski, 2003)

 

 

ARCHEBACTERIA

            --16S rRNA (Pace, 1986)

--IleRS sequence (Brown, 1995)

--rRNA (Pace, 1986)

 

EUBACTERIA

            --16S rRNA (Pace, 1986)

--IleRS sequence (Brown, 1995)

--rRNA (Pace, 1986)

--elongation factor EF-G2 sequence (Baldauf, 1996)

--RHOr (Gallio, 2002)