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VERTEBRAL COLUMN
vertebral column vertebral column vertebral column

--composed of 24 vertebrae & 2 bones of fused vertebrae; vertebrae separated by intervertebral disks of fibrocartilage for cushioning

--forms curves (which begin during infancy) in order to bear the body's weight; most of the body's weight is ventral to the spine; curves develop when child begins to hold its head up (cervical curve) & walk (lumbar curve)

 

--vertebrae have:

--a central vertebral foramen for the spinal cord

--small spaces between vertebrae placed together known as intervertebral foramina where spinal nerves pass

--a body


--spinous and transverse processes (many muscles attach here); vertebrae articulate with each other with articular processes (superior and inferior)

--the tips of the spinous processes are palpable along the midline of the back

--(the trapezius & latissimus dorsi muscles have origins on spinous processes)

--intervertebral disks of fibrocartilage to absorb shock

nerve
nerve
nerve
vertebrae
vertebrae
cervical
thoracic
intervertebral
intervetebral
articular processes

vertebrae

a) cervical vertebrae (7)

--1st: atlas; has no body, superior articular facets articulate with the occipital condyles of the skull; muscle attachments for "yes" movement

--2nd: axis; dens projects through atlas; atlas can turn around it for "no" movements

--cervical vertebrae have a transverse foramen for the vertebral artery

atlas atlas
atlas atlas
AXIS
axis AXIS
AXIS AXIS
CERVICAL
CERVICAL CERVICAL
CERVICAL CERVICAL
VERTEBRAL ARTERY
FUSED VERTEBRAE