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ARM/FIN MUSCLES

     In cartilaginous fish, only ventral somite muscles give rise to fin musculature.  In bony fish and tetrapods, the ventral muscles form flexors of the fin/limb and dorsal muscles form the extensors of fin/limb. (Webster, 1974, p. 123)

SHARK

FIN

FIN
Sarcopterygian fish elaborated the skeletal elements and musculature of their fins as in this lungfish.

LUNGFISH

FIN MUSCLES

FIN MUSCLES

In tetrapods, the biceps brachii and brachialis are the major forearm flexors and the triceps brachii is the major forearm extensor.  The two heads of the biceps result from the fusion of two ancestral muscles (Kardong, p. 387)

The triceps brachii extends the arm and forearm.

DRAWING

The biceps brachii and brachialis flex the forearm.  The biceps brachii also flexes the arm and supinates the forearm.

SALAMANDER

SALAMANDERSALAMANDER

SALAMANDER

FROG

FROG

TURTLE

TURTLE

TURTLE

TURTLE

TURTLE

ALLIGATOR

ARM MUSCLES

CHICKEN

ARM MUSCLES

ARM MUSCLES

PIGEON

PIGEONPIGEON

OPOSSUM

ARM MUSCLES

ARM MUSCLES

CAT

ARM MUSCLES

ARM MUSCLES
ARM MUSCLES ARM MUSCLES
ARM MUSCLES

GOAT

ARM MUSCLES

ARM MUSCLES
ARM MUSCLES

SHEEP

ARM MUSCLES

ARM MUSCLES
ARM MUSCLES

COW

ARM MUSCLES

ARM MUSCLES

PIG

ARM

TRICEPS

RHESUS MONKEY

ARM MUSCLES

ARM MUSCLES
ARM MUSCLES

HUMAN MODEL

ARM MUSCLES

ARM MUSCLES
ARM MUSCLES ARM MUSCLES
ARM MUSCLES ARM MUSCLES