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CARBONIFEROUS PERIOD

359-299 million years ago

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pholiderpeton occipital region

seymouria occipital region

Anthracosaurs consolidated their occipital region and the stapes was reduced in size. Amniotes use the stapes as a middle ear bone which facilitates hearing.


In anthracosaurs, the postparietal bone was reduced and the tabular contacted the parietal. The stapes is reduced. Seymouria was not ancestral to reptiles (because of its late date) but its ancestors reduced the size of the stapes even further (Clack, 2002).