Ancestral anthropoid evolved a number of changes.
In the ancestors of anthropoid primates and tarsiers, the rhinarium was
lost and the upper lips lost some of their attachments and became more
free to move.
THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
Anthropoid primates possess ABO blood groups (some prosimians have B-like
antigens) and the M blood antigen. Gene conversion occurred in which globin
acquired exons from the adjacent globin gene. globin was duplicated and
became the major family globin during fetal development (in other mammals,
is expressed only during embryonic development and is expressed during
THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
In male anthropoid primates, there was a reduction of penile spines. The
Y-specific DAZ cluster evolved since the divergence of new world monkeys
and human lineages.
Ancestral anthropoid primates evolved a number of genetic modifications.
All anthropoid primates studies have a major cluster containing members
of the ZNF91 family. Proteins of the electron transport chain have experienced
positive selection in the lineage leading anthropoid primates (COX1, COX6B,
COX6C, COX7C, COX8L, CYCS, CYB,ISP). This type of positive selection suggests
that these modifications were important in primate adaptations, such as
a large brain with increased oxygen requirements.