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CENOZOIC ERA

PALEOGENE PERIOD

Eocene Epoch

55-34 million years ago

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monkey

Ancestral anthropoid evolved a number of changes.

THE SKIN
In the ancestors of anthropoid primates and tarsiers, the rhinarium was lost and the upper lips lost some of their attachments and became more free to move.

THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
Anthropoid primates possess ABO blood groups (some prosimians have B-like antigens) and the M blood antigen. Gene conversion occurred in which globin acquired exons from the adjacent globin gene. globin was duplicated and became the major family globin during fetal development (in other mammals, is expressed only during embryonic development and is expressed during fetal development).

THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
In male anthropoid primates, there was a reduction of penile spines. The Y-specific DAZ cluster evolved since the divergence of new world monkeys and human lineages.

GENETIC CHANGES
Ancestral anthropoid primates evolved a number of genetic modifications. All anthropoid primates studies have a major cluster containing members of the ZNF91 family. Proteins of the electron transport chain have experienced positive selection in the lineage leading anthropoid primates (COX1, COX6B, COX6C, COX7C, COX8L, CYCS, CYB,ISP). This type of positive selection suggests that these modifications were important in primate adaptations, such as a large brain with increased oxygen requirements.