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FLOWERING PLANTS 2
 

     In order to access the nectar and pollen, pollinators must reach the sexual organs of the flower.  Some flowers are very open so that unspecialized pollinators can access them such as magnolias,

MAGNOLIA

sunflowers,

sunflowers

multifloral roses,

ROSE

and wild roses.

rose

Other flowers have more specialized flowers which attract specialized flowers.  Notice the difference in the fusion of petals in the closely related deerberry and blueberry bushes.

deerberry

deerberry

blueberry

blueberry

Fusion of petals is found in bellwort,

bellowrt

and white campion.

white campion

Many flowering plants protect themselves with defensive spines and thorns, such as those of teasel,

teasel

tearthumb,

tearthumb

Many flowers have patterns and lines which guide pollinators to the rewards within, such as in these violets below.

violet

and thistles.

thistle

violet

Some of these patterns are not visible to humans but are visible to bees, which see in ultraviolet.  Buttercups, for example, have ultraviolet patterns that are not visible to humans.

buttercup

Many flowers enclose their seeds in a nutritious fruit.  Animals which ingest the fruit typically excrete the seeds in feces at some distance from the plant, helping to spread the population.  Fruits are produced in honeysuckle,

honeysuckle

blackberry

blackberry

 

teaberryteaberry

Other plants have their seeds encased in structures which adhere to animals, such as mammal fur or human clothing.  Eventually the seeds fall off and the animal has unwittingly helped the plant to disperse its offspring.  Such seed packets are evident in tick trefoil.

trefoil